Author and photographer, Dr Donald Perkins

Plants, Flowers and Ecology of Anglesey

Throughout 2004, in season and according to the weather .

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Logo: Anglesey Ecology, Ecoleg Ynys Môn - Spotted rock-rose (Tuberaria guttata ssp breweri)

Logo: Llansadwrn Weather - Melin Llynnon, Ynys Môn

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Cymraeg Welsh name - Botanical Latin name

April April; May May; June June; July July;

Tywyn Aberffraw in Tywyn Aberffraw March; Tywyn Aberffraw in May May; Tywyn Aberffraw in June June; Tywyn Aberffraw in July July;
Trwyn Eilian Point Lynas Trwyn Eilian in spring
Gors Goch Gors Goch
Coedwig Niwbwrch Newborough Forest Coedwig Niwbwrch/ Newborough Forest

January 2004 Winter heliotrope, click to see larger image. The winter heliotrope Petasites fragrans Heuldro'r Gaeaf was in flower on on the 20th  Click for photo of the winter heliotrope. Seen on this north-facing facing slope of the Menai Strait near Felinheli; it was also in flower in Llansadwrn. It has heart shaped leaves and fragrant lilac flowers that appear at the same time  Click for close-up photo . Originally from the Mediterranean region, including North Africa, it was introduced into English gardens in 1806 and escaped into the wild. As you can see in the photograph it can dominate large areas and, as the leaves get quite large in the summer intercepting all the sunlight, prevents the growth of other plants. Beware, it has vigorous rhizomes and can become rampant in the garden. Fls Nov - Mar.
 Click for photo of snowdrops. Eirlys Snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) in flower in the garden on the 24th. Some in west Wales are thought could be native, but it is difficult to differentiate between the populations and most must be regarded as introduced. It has not been possible to find any records before 1770. Pollinated by bees. Fls Dec - Mar

February 2004 Garden plants were covered with snow on 26 February 2004. Conifer Prince Albert. Click to see larger image. On the 26th a heavy snowfall covered plants in the garden with up to 13 cm snow. Branches of deciduous trees and shrubs, still without leaves, were coated with snow while evergreen conifers were completely covered  Click for photo of garden plants covered with snow . Winter flowering Erica carnea December Red, flowering since autumn 2003, were peeping through the snow  Click for photo of the Erica flowers peeping through the snow  Click for close-up of Erica flowers in snow . Spring flowering bulbs were covered too, these lilac and white crocus almost disappeared  Click for photo of crocus in the snow . Taller daffodils Click for photo of daffodils in the snow, well advanced at this time this year were, stood in disarray the flowers capped with snow  Click for photo of snow caps on the daffodils.

March 2004  Click for photo daffodils on St. David's Day The 1st is St David's Day, the patron saint of Wales, daffodils a traditional emblem of Wales, together with crocuses and snowdrops were in flower in the garden having emerged undamaged after the heavy snowfall.
On the 7th, at Tywyn Aberffraw, the effect of the heavy winter rains could be seen. The dune slacks, that are habitats for many of the summer flowering plants including orchids, were flooded. In some places just a few centimetres in others up to 80 cm. The water was not very salty, containing between 0.6 - 0.8 grams of dissolved solids per litre. The water would not harm the plants, as long as it does not stay too long, and is a regular occurrence. In fact the local toad population depend on it. The males arrive first and wait, perhaps several weeks, for the females. They spawn and the cycle is completed. The water will gradually evaporate, and seep through the soil under the high dunes on the shore. At low tides in winter water The dune slacks were underwater at Tywyn Aberffraw on 7 March 2004. seepage from the slacks can often be seen on the beach. Moisture retained just below the surface of the slacks, during the summer, is essential to maintain the growth of plants in this special habitat. Others plants such as the thymes, that tolerate even need drier conditions, are found higher up on hummocks and fixed dunes. This time of year may at first seem uninteresting, the slacks are under water and there is no sign of the pansies that carpet the dunes yellow and blue in summer. But now is a good time to look closely at the ground because it is coloured differently. After the rains some dunes take on many shades of green and grey and it is worth looking why. The luxuriant growth of different mosses provide the greens while lichens the grey  Click for photo of yellow-green moss and grey foliose lichen . Mosses and lichens are important in binding the surface of loose sand giving stability and, when they decay, incorporate organic material in the sand forming soil that can support other plants. An early sign of spring was found on creeping willow Salix repens agg. Corhelygen the buds of which were beginning to open  Click for photo of the creeping willow Fls Apr - May.

April 2004 Primroses Briallu Primula vulgaris can be found sporadically in flower through the now warmer winter months. But with the temperature rising to 19.1C on the last day of March they have, on the 2nd April, burst fully into bloom  Click for photo primroses with peacock butterfly . The flowers attracted a peacock butterfly to feed, after overwintering in a nearby log pile. The flowers that are insect pollinated show typical heterostyly. The plant has two types of flower, but on any one plant it is of only one kind. The flowers in photograph are the 'pin-eyed' type, the style (tube connecting ovary and stigma) is long so that the stigma (female receptive surface for pollen grains) is near, or a little above, the mouth of the corolla (petals) tube. The five anthers (male) are below, somewhere near the middle of the tube. In the 'thrum-eyed' type the style is short; the stigma is in the middle of the tube and the anthers are near the top  Click for photo of thrum-eyed type of primrise flower . Good seed setting usually requires cross-pollination between the two types of flower. It is achieved when insects move from one type of flower to another so transferring pollen. Fls Apr - May
Leaves and flower buds on Castanwydden y Meirch horse-chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum were also opening  Click for photo of leaves and buds of horse-chestnut .
On the 7th the salt tolerant ivy-leaved scurvy grass was seen in flower on the edge of the A5025 in Llansadwrn  Click for photo  Click close-up of Llwylys Denmarc . Llwylys Denmarc early scurvygrass Cochleria danica normally grows near the sea. An overwintering low spreading annual, known as a halophyte as it is able to grow where it is salty and others cannot. To find out more about this interesting plant look here.
Dulys Alexanders or Alisander Smyrnium olusatrum was in flower on the 10th near the old Almshouses on the road to Beaumaris.
By the 16th, a few days later than last year, the wild cherry Ceiriosen Ddu Prunus avium was in flower with it's leaves just starting to expand.
 Click for photo of violets Dog-violets Gwiolydd Cyffredin Viola riviniana had also come into flower. A native species of woods, hedges and mountain grassland. Likes well-drained dry places, but will grow on both acidic and calcareous soils. Fls Apr - Jun and sometimes later.
 Click for photo of beech tree This native beech tree Ffawydden Fagus sylvatica, photographed on the 19th at the weather station, had still not begun to open it's leaves. Other trees including the horse chestnut and sycamore already have well-developed leaves  Click for photo of three trees leafing at different times, horse-chestnut on the left, beech centre and sycamore on the right.
Wallfowers growing on walls at the castle in Beaumaris.  Click for photo of wallflowers on Beaumaris Castle walls. Wallflowers Blodyn y Fagwyr Cheiranthus cheiri were in flower on the Castle walls at Beaumaris on the 22nd. A naturalised alien - a native of Greece and the Aegean. Fls Apr - Jun.
On the 29th Garlleg y Berth Garlic mustard, also known as 'Jack by the hedge' Alliaria petiolata, was spotted growing on the roadside near Capel Mawr, Anglesey  Click for photo of garlic mustard or Jack by the hedge. The plant can reach about a metre tall and the leaves smell of garlic when crushed. It is a biennial (flowers in it's second year of growth), but can persist from adventitious buds on it's roots. The plant is an important food plant of the caterpillars of the orange-tip and green-veined white butterflies. Butterflies, having emerged from overwintered chrysalides, seek out garlic mustard on which to lay eggs, just beneath the flower heads. When the caterpillars emerge they feed on the developing seeds that have, by this time, developed. Phenology is all important, plants and butterflies need to be around at exactly the the right time.  Click for close-up photo Fls Apr - Jun. This green-veined white butterfly feeding on red campion flowers was photographed in Newborough Forest last year by Mike Weiner  Click for photo of green-veined white butterfly.

May 2004 The beech Ffawydden Fagus sylvatica tree at the weather station on the 3rd  Click for photo of the beech tree. Still has the brilliant light green-coloured leaves but is now in full flower  Click for close-up photo of beech flowers . It was a dry sunny day and clouds of pollen were blowing away on a light breeze.
On the 7th the light-green leaves on this hawthorn hedge (bottom of image) and broadleaved trees were still developing  Click for photo of leafing trees .
On the 12th Triaglog Coch the red valerian Centranthus ruber was in flower on walls in Beaumaris  Click for photo red valerian . Naturalised particularly in coastal areas of Wales, introduced from the Mediterranean region, grows on old walls and banks, cliffs and railway cuttings. White and pink forms occur.  Click for close-up of red valarian flower Pollinated by butterflies and moths Fls May - Aug. Also in Beaumaris, near the Health Centre, an apple tree was in full flower  Click to see apple blossom in Beaumaris. On the 14th apple trees were seen blossoming  Click for apple blossom in Brynsiencyn at Hooton's farm in Brynsiencyn.
With the increasing light and temperature, trees in the woodland at the weather station have been expanding their leaves. With the canopy of leaves nearly closed trees are intercepting most of the sunlight. Under beech the canopy is almost closed Click to see the almost closed leaf canopy under beech trees. while in another part of the wood, where elm trees were felled following Dutch elm disease in the 1970's, the canopy under regeneration is more open  Click to see the leaf canopy under regenerated trees.. The developing cover of the canopy gives patches of light and shade in the wood Pattern orf light and shade in the wood.. In the spring, before the leaves have opened, there is plenty of light reaching the woodland floor and plants take advantage of this. The bluebell is typical; their leaves began to appear in January and by the 7th March were 5 cm tall. On the 4th March the leaves were 15 cm and the first flower was seen on the 7th April. Now, they are getting past their best, fading and starting to produce seed  Click to see the bluebells. but it was still possible to find good carpets in some lighter parts of the wood on the 14th  Click to see a closer view of bluebells.. Another plant of the woodland floor is herb Robert  Click to see herb Robert together with a fern and ivy on the woodland floor. Llys y Llwynog Geranium robertianum ssp robertianum. Has reddish-pink flowers and occurs also on hedgerow banks and other shady places. In woodland the fern-like leaves are bright green Fls May - Oct . Also in flower now in the wood is Graf y Geifr Allium ursinum the wild garlic, Ramsoms  Click for photo of Ramsons.. Can also be found in damp shady places Fls Apr - Jun . There are also a few holly trees that grow there despite the dense shade of summer.

Flowering plants on the western maritime cliff at Point Lynas, NE Anglesey, on 15 May 2004 . Click to see larger image. Trwyn Eilian Point Lynas lies at the north-east corner of Anglesey adjacent to Porth Eilian  Click for general view of Porth Eilian, white flowered sea campion and sea pinks also in the photo.. On the 15th maritime spring flowers were in full bloom. The Point is about 70 ft (22 m) above sea level and surrounded by rocky cliffs, steepest on the west side (see photograph). An escarpment, it slopes more gently to the sea in an easterly direction. At the end of the Point is a lighthouse, and fog horn, now automatically operated. Beyond and north of the lighthouse the ground again slopes to an exposed rocky shore. In rough weather sea spray can blow over the Point influencing the type of vegetation that grows there. Cyllell Lanw, at the north west corner, is the most exposed and salty place where only plants tolerant of salt spray (halophytes) can survive. But on the flat top, near the Liverpool Bay Pilots' Station, a walled garden (disused) was kept by lighthouse keepers in the past. There are still a few garden plants to be seen including the perennial montbretia (flowers July to August) that has escaped the confines of the garden wall. The grassy areas  Click for photo of grassy area dominated by fescues are mainly of sheep's fescue Peisgwellt y Defaid Festuca ovina, and some red fescue Peisgwellt Coch Festuca rubra ssp In addition there are some acidic peaty places where small dry heaths have developed  Click for photo of one of the heaths dominated by Ericaceous species. Bell heather Erica cinerea and Calluna vulgaris dominate. At the beginning of the promontory there is scrub with gorse frequented by nesting stonechats while rare choughs breed on the cliffs. Until recently the area was grazed by sheep.
A carpet of squills with sea pink on the edge of the sea at the northernmost point. Click to see larger image. The violet-blue spring squill Seren y Gwanwyn Scilla verna carpets patches of the grassy top and precipitous cliff-slopes  Click for photo the spring squill. The bulbous plant with linear fleshy leaves  Click for close-up of the spring squill, Scilla verna grows along the western side of Britain, from south Devon through Wales to Scotland and the Orkneys, on dry, short, maritime grassland over a range of soil types. Here it was found growing, along with the glaucous sedge  Click for photo of the glaucous sedge flower. Hesgen Oleulas Wyrgamddail Carex flacca, on the wetter salt-drenched northern tip. The abundance of squills on Point Lynas has increased in recent years in the absence of sheep. This year sheep have been absent from some surrounding fields, carpets were seen on many rocky outcrops and field margins  Click for photo of the squills in ungrazed field. . Pollinated by insects Fls Apr - May .
Very colourful, in various shades of pink  Click for photo of the sea pink in rock cleft, were the tussock forming Clustog Mair Armeria maritima ssp maritima, the sea pink (thrift)  Click for close-up of sea pink flower . They are found clinging precariously to cracks in rock faces, or on flat surfaces and in grassy banks along with other species. Widely distributed from salt marshes to mountains. Insect pollinated Fls Mar - Sep but mainly May to July.
Also striking, but less common here, is the large white flowered (25 mm across) Llys y Poer the sea campion Silene vulgaris ssp maritima [uniflora]. It has a greenish-purple bladder-like calyx  Click to see the sea campion. Fls May - Aug.
Growing on the roadside at Porth Eilian was the blue-flowered green Alkanet Llys y Gwrid Pentaglotis sempervirens Click for photo of Pentaglotis, green Alkanet.. A plant from south-west France and Spain now established here. It likes to grow, as here, on a shady hedge banks and being tall (up to 1 m) can compete successfully with others  Click for close-up of the Alkanet flower . Fls May - Jun . Nearby was the triquetrous garlic Allium triquetrum. Also known as the three-cornered leek  Click for photo of the three-cornered leek. It has a small whitish bulb and linear triangular-shaped leaves. Introduced from the western Mediterranean and cultivated in gardens here from 1752, escaped and now naturalised in woods and damp hedgebanks. But it only hardy in western coastal areas, as here. Pollinated by insects its seeds are dispersed by ants. Fls Apr - Jun .

The dune slacks had dried by the 17th May. Click to see larger image. A visit to Tywyn Aberffraw on the 17th revealed that the dune slacks (damp hollows), still underwater on the 7th March, had dried out but were still very moist. Creeping willow (in foreground and surrounding area of photograph) was flowering. Some plants have already flowered and set seed. Patches of the creeping willow Salix repens agg. Corhelygen, seen on the 7th March in bud, were white with hundreds of plumed seed that were blowing away on the wind  Click for photo of creeping willow with white plumed seeds.. But the phenology of this species is as varied as its morphology. On the same day could be seen plants still flowering  Click for flowering creeping willow. and to find those where all the seeds had dispersed and turned characteristically red  Flower bases of creeping willow become red after the seed has dispersed.. Creeping willow is an important plant of the sand dune ecosystem. It traps blown sand; it is able to grow up through, and bind, the deposited sand and form hummocks or even low dunes thus raising the ground surface above ground water level.
Early forget-me-not. Click for larger image. Within the now drier slacks other plants were already beginning to grow. New leaves of the twayblade and bee orchids were seen while there were first flowers of early marsh orchid Tegeiran y Gors Dactylorhiza incarnata appearing  Click to see a picture of the early marsh orchid just starting to flower.. Some of these will, within a week be at their best. Fls May - Jun .
The first blue violets were appearing on the fixed (stable) dunes  Click for photo of the heath dog-violet. This is the heath dog-violet Fioled y Cwn Viola canina flowering a bit later than the common dog-violet. In Wales, it occurs mainly around the coast on dunes and grassy heaths. Fls May - Jun . More plentiful, but by no means yet at their best, were the dune pansies Viola tricolor ssp curtisii  Click for photo of the dune pansy. Trilliw. A perennial plant of sand dunes and coastal grassland mainly in the west. Blue and blue/ yellow forms occur as well as yellow. Fls Apr - Sep.
Also just appearing on the fixed dunes was the small blue early forget-me-not Ysgorpionllys Cynnar Myosotis ramosissima  Click for photo.. The calyx is covered in hooked hairs while the flowers are only 2 - 3 mm in diameter; Common only in the southern and western coastal areas and, being a calcicole species, is found in somewhat drier locations rich in calcium, perhaps derived from crushed sea or snail shells. Fls Apr - Jun . Found in the same dry calcium rich habitat on fixed dunes is  Click for photo of the bulbous buttercup Chwys Mair the bulbous buttercup Ranunculus bulbosus ssp bulbosus. Above ground parts die back, after flowering, leaving the corm dormant until September when a bud grows forming a rosette of leaves and starts a new corm. The cycle is not complete until the old corm's reserves are exhausted, by about March, then it decays. Leafy stems start to grow from March onwards for flowering in May to July .

In flower this month are our native holly trees Celynnen Ilex aquilifolium. Found in woods and hedges, well known for it's red berries in the autumn and used for decoration at Christmas. Evergreen, with prickly dark green leaves glossy on top, it can grow up to 25 m tall and will tolerate a considerable amount of shade. Holly is dioecious, that is the male and female flowers are on separate trees, and to produce berries a male tree needs to be within 20 - 30 m of the female to achieve pollination. Wind pollination is most likely, but bees and holly blue butterflies (seen here this year) will visit the flowers. Flowers with 4 white petals joined at the base, about 5 - 6 mm diameter, are found clustered where the leaf stems join twigs and branchlets. They have a strong sweet scent especially in warm weather. It is worth looking closely at the flowers because the differences between the male and female tree flowers may at first not be obvious. In the photograph taken on 22 May the female tree flower (on the left) has large ovaries (that will become the red berries) and although it has stamens these are rudimentary and have no pollen. The male tree (on the right) has rudimentary ovaries but has viable stamens  Male and female holly tree flowers . Look closely and you might just be able to see pollen at the tips of the stamens of the male tree flowers  Larger image of the holly tree male flowers . By the 22 June the green berries on the female tree had developed considerably  Click for photo . There were none on the male tree. The berries (technically drupes with 4 seeds) are poisonous to humans, but in the autumn when ripe and red in colour are consumed by mistle thrushes, redwings and blackbirds who are responsible for widely dispersing the seed. They usually take most if not all of the berries on the trees at the weather station well before Christmas! Fls Apr - Jun .

One of the dune slacks at Tywyn Aberffraw. Looking W, the beach is beyond the dunes. Click to see larger image, but please close window afterwards. June 2004 Another visit was made to Tywyn Aberffraw on the 11th. The sand dune ecosystem consists of a variety of habitats each best for different plant species and groups of plants. The habitats include unstable mobile dunes, seen on the western seaward side, the more stable and relatively dry fixed dunes are further inland while the dune slacks (flat damp hollows where ground water reaches or approaches the surface even in summer) lie between. In addition there is a range of acidity controlled by the presence or absence of crushed shells of marine animals, that are rich in calcium. Where shells are absent, and the soil is damp, dead plant remains can accumulate that results in more organic matter and greater acidity. Different plant species take advantage of the different conditions. Some have a wide tolerance, but others are more specific. While most plants can survive almost anywhere they cannot compete with those that are adapted to particular conditions.

The moist dune slacks still had abundant patches of creeping willow Salix repens agg with white plumed seed, but were now silver green with Potentilla anserina the silverweed Tinllwyd with it's soft and silky divided leaves that will not flower until later in the summer. A common plant tolerant of trampling and compacted soils, but not confined to sand dunes. Interspersed were the early marsh orchids Tegeiran y Gors Dactylorhiza incarnata ssp coccinea, just starting to flower on May 17th, now out in their hundreds across several dune slacks  Click for photo . Leaves unspotted, individual flowers coloured light brick-red < 1 cm, stem 10 -15 cm  Click for photo of early marsh orchid.  Close-up of flowers of early marsh orchid.. Fls. May - Jun.
There were a few flowers appearing of the related later flowering Tegeirian y Migin northern marsh orchid Dactylorhiza majalis ssp purpurella  Click for photo  Click for photo. . Well distinguished here, from the early marsh, because of it's purple colour. Occurs in the north of Britain, including Anglesey, the distribution being almost the reverse of the southern marsh orchid Dactyloriza praetermissa. The exception is a single occurrence of the northern form in the New Forest. (Both forms can be found in Wales to the south and east, and particularly in Pembrokeshire). Fls Jun - Jul: Insect pollinated.

On the drier fixed dunes, just starting to appear amongst a different range of plants, was Tegeiran Bera pyramidal orchid Anacamptis pyramidalis  Pyramidal orchid growing on a fixed dune . Also found on calcareous grassland in southern and eastern Britain but also around coastal areas of Wales and Ireland. Close-up of the pyramidal orchid flower . Fls Jun - Aug. Pollinated by butterflies and moths that have long proboscis. This flower has no nectar, they take a watery liquid from inside the flower instead.

Close-up of the bee orchid flower. Click to see larger image. Typical of the species, being variable in it's appearance from year to year, I could only find a few plants of the bee orchid Tegeirian Gwenynen Ophrys apifera this year, and not in the same place as last year.  Click for the bee orchid . 2 - 3 flowers on a stem 10 - 30 cm tall. Grows on open calcium-rich grassland, banks and fixed sand dunes. Despite it's name, after the fat lip gives a good impression of a bumblebee, it is mostly self-pollinated only rarely by insects.  Closer view of the bee-like flowers Fls Jun - Jul.
In contrast, also coming into flower was the twayblade orchid Ceineiran Listera ovata  Click to see the twayblade orchid is elaborately insect pollinated. It has a pair of broad flat leaves on opposite sides of the stem, some way from the base. The English name is from the Gaelic, Twa Blades, while the botanical name is after naturalist and physician Martin Lister (1638 - 1712). It is the only British orchid to have this feature apart from the butterfly orchids. There is an early record in Turner's Names of Herbes of 1548 where it was called 'Martagon' and said to be found in 'watery middowes and woddes'. It is widely distributed on both acidic and calcareous soils, and found in a broad range of habitats from shady woodland (it can even be found in young conifer plantations) to sunny grassland and, as here, on sand dunes. The plant is rhizomatous and each year sends up a stem 20 - 60 cm which bears the leaves and flowers. It has yellowish-green flowers that perhaps look rather drab, after the bee orchid and other colourful orchids, but it has typical orchid flower structure  Close-up of twayblade orchid flowers . A new plant takes a long time to develop from seed, growth is dependant upon the presence of mychorizal fungi in the soil. Seed can take as long as 4 years to germinate and must be infected with the fungus for development to continue. The fungus, essential in the early stages, is not so later on the roots becoming fungus-free. The first leaf is not produced until the 4th year, food supplies being derived from the fungus. It then may be 15 years before the plant produces it's first flower and seed! Once established it can grow for many years (perhaps 25, or more), usually in a line as the rhizome grows forward from a lateral bud at the base of the flowering stem. Flowers are pollinated by various small insects attracted by the nectar. Within the flower, touch results in forcible ejection of a small drop of a glue-like substance that cements pollen to the insect. The insect is surprised by the process and rapidly moves on to another flower resulting in cross-pollination. Fls May - Jul.
The Burnet rose Rhosyn Burnet Rosa pimpinellifolia was well into flower on the fixed dunes, but will continue into July. It is a prickly shrub that can form extensive patches. In terms of succession it grows on some of the most mature parts of the dunes. Occurs all over Anglesey, and around the coast of Wales, through most of Britain including the limestone pavement in Northern England  Photograph of Rhosyn Burnet . Fls May - Jul. There is also one plant, now quite a large suckering patch, of Rosa rugosa the Japanese rose growing on the dunes  Click to see the Japanese rose . The leafy bush has become established on the coasts of Europe. It is a native of Japan where it grows mainly on sand dunes near the sea. Fls Jun - Aug.

View looking NE across the northern basin of Gors Goch. Click to see panoramic image, but please close window afterwards. Gors Goch, near Llanbedrgoch, is a calcareous fen and is important both geologically and ecologically. During the last glaciation (20,000 to 16,000 years ago) the limestone and sandstone bedrocks were covered with a thick layer of Irish Sea (Scottish) ice moving in a general southerly direction. It met ice from Snowdonia on a line just on the Anglesey side the Menai Strait; conflicting pressures resulted in a north-east to south-west movement. The ice scraped away the rock leaving a basin and various deposits including boulder clay and gravels. On the retreat and melting of ice a lake formed which, with warmer and wet weather, began to silt up and develop vegetation. As plants grew and died peat has accumulated during the 10,000 years since the last ice in the area; it is now 1 to over 3 m thick in places. It has pH values between 6.0 to over 7.0 and the water table is at or near the surface. At this visit, despite the current dry weather, there was standing water (3 to 4 cm) in places although the level had been recently much higher. Analysis of pollen grains preserved in the peat gives a complete record of the kinds of vegetation that has grown, and still growing, in and around the lake.
The panorama above shows the view looking north-east from about halfway across the basin. From ground level it does not look much a lake it being vegetated with alder and birch trees growing on it. But from a higher vantage point, looking north-west, there is still some open water  Click for photo looking NW showing open water. that attracts a range of birds, including the great crested grebe, throughout the year. The water can be seen in a photograph in the same direction (NW) but at water level from a boardwalk, through fen vegetation  Click for photo . The fen attracts several summer migrant birds including grasshopper warblers, sedge warblers, and reed buntings. The main plant of the fen is Corsen the common reed Phragmites australis {communis}  Reeds, Phragmites australis . It is the tall, and broad light-green leaved, rhizomatous grass that is just re-growing after winter die-back. Still to be seen standing are some of last years' flower heads, but this year's flowers will not be produced until August. It's height can be from 150 to 300 cm; cut stems and leaves were used for thatching. The plant needs the neutral to base-rich wet conditions found here in which to grow. Fls Aug - Oct. At the bottom of the photograph there is another, shorter plant typical of the fen. The bog bean Menyanthes trifoliata Ffa'r Gors has large (5 to 7 cm wide) trifoliate leaves that are held above the water  Menyanthes trifoliata . It has pink flowers, but here it had already flowered taking advantage of maximal available light before the other tall plants grow and cast shade. In the photograph the capsules have formed. In full light it can become dominant in shallow water. Fls May - Jul. Dragonflies and damsel flies were flitting around the plants but did not rest long enough to photograph. Nearby, between reeds and bog bean, was growing the marsh horsetail Equisetum palustre that can grow up to 60 cm tall Click to see the marsh horsetail . Spores produced from 'cones' on fertile stems, May - Jul. Somewhat taller is the shrub Helygen Mair , the bog myrtle, or sweet gale Myrica gale that has also finished flowering; the leaves appear after earlier production of catkins. The plant is usually dioecious, that is the sexes are on different plants, but can change from year to year! Fls Apr - May . It has greyish-green leaves, that are fragrant when crushed, and is found particularly in the north and west  Bog myrtle . Another important plant of the fen is the great fen-sedge Cladium marisus Llemfrwynen  Cladium marisus . This also requires neutral to base-rich conditions found here. It grows 100 to 300 cm tall with hollow stems and has thick tough leaves, with sharp teeth on the margins, that grow from the base and die back from the tip. Has and reddish-brown spikelets Fls May - Aug  Great fen-sedge . Another sedge that grows on drier parts of the fen is Schoenus nigricans Corsfwynen Ddu the black bog-rush. Fls Jun, or earlier, to Aug. Grows in tussocks up to 60 cm tall on damp base-rich places near the sea; on Anglesey, Llyn and a few other coastal sites in the west, and blanket bog in Ireland Black bog-rush .
Fragrant orchid. Click to see larger image. On the margins of the fen ragged robin Lychnis flos-cuculi Carpiog y Gors was in flower Ragged robin . This is being seen less and less because of land drainage and improvement Fls May - Jul. Also seen was the insectivorous Pinguicula vulgaris Toddyn Cyffredin the common butterwort Common butterwort . The plant overwinters as a rootless bud; the bright yellowish-green leaves are sticky and trap small insects that are dissolved for nutrition. I could not find any in flower, but when they are bees pollinate them (Fls May - Aug). Also near the fen margin was the rather variable common spotted-orchid Dactylorhiza fuchsii Tegeirian Brych Cyffredin Common spotted-orchid .
Surrounding the fen are some limestone outcrops  Click for photo of one of the limestone outcrops as seen across the fen . These support a calcareous or base-rich flora that includes Cor-rosyn Cyffredin the yellow rock-rose Helianthemum nummularium ssp nummularium . The Burnet rose Rosa pimpinellifolia Rhosyn Burnet , that has been seen at Tywyn Aberffraw, was here also growing as a calicole plant on limestone derived soil Burnet rose . The fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea Tegeirian PÍr was abundant on the grassy slopes beneath the outcrops Fragrant orchids While frequently found in drier locations in species-rich communities on limestone, it sometimes is seen on wetter ground around fens or among ericaceous species on more acidic soils Close-up of the fragrant orchid. It has fragrant delicate reddish-lilac coloured flowers . Fls Jun - Jul. Towards the middle of the basin a limestone outcrop has been smoothed by passing ice, forming pavement. On here were patches of small-leaved cotoneaster Cotoneaster microphyllus Small-leaved cotoneaster . This plant was introduced from the Himalayas into gardens in 1824 and has become naturalised on limestone near the sea in many parts. Gors Goch is an NNR (National Nature Reserve) and a Regionally Important Geological and Geomorphological Site (RIGS). It is managed in partnership by the North Wales Wildlife Trust NWWT and the Countryside Council for Wales CCW.

At Gallows Point, Beaumaris on the 23rd there was a splash of yellow with Cedw Du the black mustard Brassica nigra in flower. It was on the shingle-spit, above the normal high tide mark, where boats are hauled out  Black mustard . Of the cabbage family it is a native species that in Wales is found mainly near the sea.  Closer view of black mustard . An annual, cultivated for its seeds found in 4 angled pods. Fls Jun - Aug.  Click for photo . Very characteristic of shingle-beaches is the sea mayweed Tripleurospernum maritimum  Sea mayweed . Found above the high tide mark, is a biennial or perennial Fls Jul - Sep. The spear-leaved orache Atriplex prostrata (hastata agg) Llygwyn Tryfal  Spear-leaved orache . Common, in Wales it has a marked maritime distribution. A little early to see it in flower; mostly self-fertilized thus tending to maintain distinct forms. Fls Jul - Sep.

Protection from the sea. Click to see larger image. On the 25th at Tywyn Aberffraw Moresg marram grass Ammophila arenaria ssp arenaria was in flower on the sand dunes facing the sea  Mobile dunes at Aberffraw . A robust tussock-forming rhizomatous perennial plant with inrolled leaves that dominates much of the dune system. It was flowering best on the seaward edge of the dunes where blown sand and saltspray provides nutrients for its growth  Marram grass in flower Fls Jun - Sep. In return it traps sand and stabilises the dunes by growing upwards, rooting at the nodes (points on stems where leaves appear), through the deposited sand. But it is not the primary dune forming plant. Down on the beach a look above the strand line, where seaweed and flotsam and jetsam are deposited by the rising tide, a few plants can be found. One of these is the spear-leaved orache Atriplex prostrata (hastata agg) Llygwyn Tryfal already seen on shingle at Gallows Point. On the beach it was trapping blown dry sand in a V-shape making a windvane  Spear-leaved orache forming a sand windvane close-up  Spear-leaved orache . Once some sand it built up seeds of sand couch-grass Elymus farctus ssp boreali-atlanticus (formerly known as Agropyron junceiforme) Marchwellt Tywyn can germinate and start to grow. This is the primary dune-forming plant that traps more sand and begins to form an embryo dune  Embro dune formation . It is rhizomatous with stems reaching 20 to 60 cm tall with flatish glaucous leaves. It does not mind the occasional submergence in sea water. Fls Jun - Aug. There is a third dune forming plant, but here is only found in 1 or 2 places. Lyme-grass Amdowellt Leymus arenarius can grow between 1 and 2 m tall. The creeping stem roots freely into fresh sand. Plants stand out with their spiky 1 to 2 cm wide bluish-green leaves  Lyme-grass . Fls Jun - Aug . The sand dunes on the beach are constantly changing and are known as mobile, or yellow, dunes. Winter storms and high tides attack the leading edge, perhaps undermining tussocks and washing away sand. They are rebuilt by the plants as blown sand accumulates, but it is a fairly slow process. If there is a good supply of sand the dunes can reach a considerable height above sea level. But it is a feature of mobile dunes that the cover of vegetation in incomplete. Sand can be blown away from between the plants. With south to westerly prevailing winds, sand could be blown from dune to dune a considerable distance inland. At Aberffraw dunes can be found at least 2.5 km from the high water mark, but these would have formed a long while ago. A characteristic flowering plant found on mobile dunes is the sea spurge Llaethlys y Môr Euphorbia paralias  Sea spurge . Fls May - Aug  Close up sea spurge . Similar to the Portland spurge that grows here. Also, Celyn y Môr sea-holly Eryngium maritimum  Sea -holly . Fls Jul - Sep  Close up of sea-holly flowers .

Inland from the mobile dunes vegetation cover increases and they become more stable. These are known as fixed or grey dunes where often the surface has a high cover of mosses and the grey-coloured (hence the name) lichens including Cladonia sp and several foliose species. These contribute to the build up of organic matter in the top layer of sand so that it becomes more hospitable to a wider range of plants. Indeed, part of the area was reclaimed and used in the 1950's for growing crops that included carrots, early potatoes and rye. Marram grass continues to grow on fixed dunes but the plant gradually declines in vigour, stops flowering and may become moribund. Fixed dunes can develop quite close to the sea and include a range of species including the pyramidal orchid Tegeiran Bera Anacamptis pyramidalis as here  Pyramidal orchids on fixed dune . Although more stable, fixed dunes are still subject to wind erosion, perhaps but not always following unnatural damage, as just beyond the orchids here  Fixed dune erosion. In severe cases blow-outs occur where even large dunes may be completely eroded away  Wind erosion of dunes . Rabbit burrows are a possible starting place for wind erosion, trampling is unlikely to be a problem but cars and motor bikes, a few bikes have been seen there recently, could cause damage. When sand is exposed again the succession can be repeated. Here, on a blow-out some distance inland, marram grass has been reinvigorated and was in flower  Reinvigorated marram grass on dune blow-out .

Dark green fritillary. Between the high sand dunes lie the dune slacks  Dune slack depression between the high dunes . Most of the creeping willow, a common species here, had finished flowering and the plumed seeds had blown away. Constantly supplied with blown sand, from eroding Ammophila dunes, the willow grows upwards producing new roots thus raising the level above ground water. This can be seen happening along several old vehicular tracks (driving on to the dunes has been stopped in recent years) that are being rapidly in-filled. Organic material builds up and supports a wider range of species. Some slacks were carpeted with the bog pimpernel Gwlyddyn Mair y Gors Anagallis tenella  Bog pimpernel . Fls Jun - Sep  Close up of bog pimpernel . Feeding on the flowers was a dark green fritillary butterfly Argynnis ajlaja  Probable dark green fritillary . Nearby was a feeding six-spot Burnet moth Zygaena filipendulae Six-spot Burnet Moth. These largely daytime flying moths are about from June to August, later than the largely nocturnal cinnabar moths (May - July).having laid eggs that will soon become caterpillars to feed on the ragwort. Abundant nearby was the red flowered kidney vetch or Ladies' fingers Anthyllis vulneraria {var coccinea} Plucen Felen  Ladies' fingers , and Ononis repens common restharrow Tagaradr . Fls Jun - Sep  Common restharrow . Getting towards the end of it's flowering period on the slack was this fine northern marsh orchid Tegeirian y Migin Dactylorhiza majalis ssp purpurella  Northern marsh orchid . But just starting to flower were Caldrist y Gors the marsh helleborine orchids Epipactis palustris  Marsh helleborine . Fls Jun - Aug close-up  Close up marsh helleborine . Parts of the slacks may be quite sandy and here plants of centuary Centuarium sp Canri Goch Arfor can be found  Centuary . Centuary is our commonest native gentian and is a very variable species with several variants growing on Anglesey. The plant has long been used in herbal medicines. The 17th Century Culpeper's Herbal lists several uses including "... purgeth choleric and gross humours and helpeth sciatica; it killeth worms of the belly ... A dram of the powder thereof taken in wine, is a wonderful good help against the biting of an adder ... the juice of the herb with a little honey is good to clear the eyes from dimness, mist and clouds ..." But don't try these remedies at home folks!

Well into flowering on fixed dunes was Lady's bedstraw Briwydden Felen Galium verum  Lady's bedstraw . A common creeping perennial herb of grassland it provides splashes of bright yellow on the fixed dunes  Closer view of Lady's bedstraw Fls Jul - Aug attractive to flies and small insects. Dried the plant was used in the past for stuffing mattresses. As well as having a pleasant scent it was deemed to deter fleas! The plant was much reduced, in the latter part of the 20th century, with the disappearance under the plough of old unfertilised species-rich grassland. It's conservation on sand dune habitats is becoming increasingly important.

July 2004 By the 6th at Tywyn Aberffraw the wild thyme Teim Gwyllt Thymus praecox ssp arcticus {drucei} was in flower on the fixed dunes where it favours the drier hummocks Fls Jun - Sep  Carpet of wild thyme A calcicole growing best in lime-rich places; it is attractive to bumblebees  Closer view of wild thyme with bumblebee and six-spot Burnet moths Six-spot Burnet moth feeding on wild thyme. . The moths will probably lay eggs on ragwort Creulys Iago Senecio jacobea and their caterpillars will feed on the plants if there are any left. Cinnabar moths, largely nocturnal are about from May to June and their caterpillars have now emerged and are eating their way through the larval host plant Caterpillars of the cinnabar moth. . The plant is poisonous to cattle and horses whether fresh or dried, but it is not eaten by rabbits. The conspicuous yellow and black-striped caterpillars are avoided by birds. When the plant was introduced into New Zealand, in the absence of natural controls, it became a serious weed. Attempts were made to control it by introducing large numbers of cinnabar moths. Although successful at first the measure failed, as New Zealand birds eat the caterpillars being unused to the bright warning colours. Later the ragwort seed-fly was imported, whose larvae feed on the developing seed, and this was more successful.
The dunes were extensively grazed by rabbits large numbers being present in the 1950's. But attacks of myxomatosis in 1954 and 1962 have left their numbers greatly reduced. As a result vegetation has grown up in places imparting a more mature look to the dunes. There are still rabbits on the dunes and, around their warrens where they graze, the vegetation is short and grassy  A rabbit grazed grassy area of fixed dunes . Tolerant of trampling and most grazing is the stoloniferous creeping buttercup Crafanc y Frân Ranunculus repens  Close view of grazed dune with creeping buttercup . A perennial plant propagating by rooting at the nodes to establish a new plant; the flowering parent plant dies  Creeping buttercup. Fls May - Oct. Most species found here are present in the sward , but being nibbled they are kept in check. In the absence of rabbit grazing some areas have changed; there is much more Burnet rose, dewberry and willow.
In flower on fixed dunes was Crydwellt Mwyaf Quaking-grass, also known as doddering dillies or tottle-grass, Briza media, that does best on lime-rich soils but is tolerant of wetter more acidic places Fls Jun - Aug  Quaking or tottle grass . Spear thistles Cirsium vulgare March Ysgallen were in flower and will continue into the autumn  Spear thistle Fls Jul - Nov. Some of the more mature dunes had large patches of Mwyaren Mair dewberry Rosa caesius in flower  Dewberry flowers . This has a long flowering period; when fruit has formed and ripened they are good to eat. Fls May - Aug. The Burnet rose Rosa pimpinellifolia Rhosyn Burnet had been flowering since May and already the hips had formed and were turning red  Hips of the Burnet rose . Near the beach on the seaward edge of the mobile dunes, between tussocks of marram grass, was the creeping prostrate perennial sea bindweed Cynghafog Arfor Calystegia soldanella  Sea bindweed . Fls Jun - Aug and pollinated by bumblebees  Closeup of sea bindweed flower .
On the sandy beach the strand plant Salsola kali spp kali prickly saltwort Helys Ysbigog was found. An annual, it is usually prostrate, only about 12 cm tall in the photograph, it can grow up to 60 cm  Saltwort on the sandy beach . It was just coming into flower Fls Jul - Sep. Growing on exposed sometimes sea-washed rocks on the shore was the rock samphire Corn Carw'r Môr Crithmum maritimum  Rock samphire . The plant has an unusual aromatic taste and was at one time much sort after. It was eaten raw, pickled or cooked during the 16th to 19th centuries and was an important coastal industry  Click for photo . Fls May - Sep. The orange foliose lichen in the close-up is Xanthoria parietina.

A stand of pine trees in Newborough Forest. Click to see larger image. ¤ Coedwig Niwbwrch Newborough Forest covers about 8 sq. km midway between the Cefni estuary, to the north and west, and Tywyn Niwbwrch Newborough Warren, Braich Abermenai and Traeth Abermenai with the Afon Braint and Menai Strait to the east and south-east. To the south-west is Ynys Llanddwyn that heads an exposure of the Gwna group of rocks (an assortment of shales, grits, limestones and pillow lavas) that run in a line north-eastwards through the forest  Mature forest trees planted along the line of pre-cambrian Gwna rocks. . Llanddwyn is the type locality for the pre-cambrian Gwna rocks. In addition to the natural open water at Llyn Rhosddu and at Pandy, artificial pools were made about 1958/ 59 on the Cefni saltmarsh and on a slack in the forest. The wildlife pool in the north is more recent. There are some fine stretches of sandy beach on either side and, including the shingle (cobbles) bank over 3 m high at Abermenai Point, it's length is over 8 km. The whole area of some 22 sq. km comprises an outstanding landscape that includes sand dunes and saltmarsh ecosystems a designated National Nature Reserve (NNR) of international importance and quality.
In the years after World War II there were strong political and economical pressures to undertake afforestation. The Forestry Commission, established to undertake this task, acquired the land, grew trees in a forest nursery and began planting up what is now known as Newborough Forest in the 1950's. At the same time, following the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act of 1947, an awakening of nature conservation in Britain took place with the formation of the Nature Conservancy. With planting underway the Newborough Warren NNR was established early in the 1960's conserving part of the sand dune system south-east of the forest, Ynys Llanddwyn and Cefni Saltmarsh.
The development of the sand dune system, as we see it today, began during the 14th century. Before that little is known, but the Princes of Gwynedd were resident in the vicinity between the 1st and 13th centuries and there was large anchorage deep enough for ships of the day near Abermenai. With the start of the building of Beaumaris Castle about 1296 the villagers of Llanfaes were dispossessed and transferred to Newborough. Sand encroachment began in the 14th century largely filling the harbour and covering land, to the south of the village, probably used for cultivation. The remains of old buildings and walls have been found in the sand. Marram grass was planted during the late 16th century to stabilise the sand; there was a flourishing industry built on use of the grass weaving for making mats and ropes. Enclosure of land began in 1845 as the grass weaving industry slowly declined. The Warren was used for the grazing of animals; rabbits were an important crop. The area was used for military training from 1939 to 1945.

Lyme-grass is involved in dune formation. Click to see larger image. Planting of the forest followed creation of straight littoral dunes at least 6 m high along the beach, west of Llanddwyn, done by building brushwood fences to trap sand and planting marram grass. In 1957 a second fence was put up on the seaward side to extend the dune system. The line of two dunes can still be identified looking west towards the Cefni estuary with the forest inland  Looking NW along the created littoral dunes W of Llanddwyn. . Accretion of sand is greatest near the estuary and there is currently active natural formation of embryo dunes by sand couch-grass Elymus farctus ssp boreali-atlanticus Marchwellt Tywyn  Active embryo dune formation by sand couch-grass. . Also involved in dune formation is Lyme-grass Amdowellt Leymus arenarius  Lyme-grass. . It is present in much larger amounts in the mobile dunes than at Tywyn Aberffraw and roots freely into freshly blown sand  Embryo dune formation view looking towards Llanddwyn island. . But, as at Aberffraw, it is marram grass Moresg Ammophila arenaria ssp arenaria that dominates the mobile dunes  Inland of the embryo dunes marram grass dominates. View from on top of the dunes looking NW towards the Cefni estuary.  Marram grass foreground with lyme-grass nearer the sea. . There is a narrow band of fixed dunes developed more or less on the top of the dunes containing moribund marram grass and typical species including dewberry and dune pansies  On the leeward dune slope looking SE.  At the base of the dune looking NW at the forest across a narrow strip of fixed dune.. Dune helleborine orchid. Click to see more of this image. The planted trees (mainly Corsican pine and some 30 other species including the maritime pine Pinus pinaster) now fix the sand sheltered behind the dunes. Part of the forest edge, facing the sea, was probably planted with species thought most resistant to salt-laden winds. Trees along the edge are wind-trimmed  Wind-trimmed trees facing the sea. and show damage associated with salt spray  Stag headed trees affected by wind and salt spray. . Within the forest facing the sea some stands have made only small growth since planting, remain unthinned, and still allow some light to reach the ground  Unthinned stand of trees close to the sea. . Most of the ground was planted with trees including the botanically interesting dune slacks. Despite the accumulation of pine needles some of the former flora survives under this stand near the sea  Stand of trees growing on a former dune slack near the sea.. These northern marsh orchids Tegeirian y Migan Dactylorhiza majalis ssp purpurella  Group of orchids under the pine trees are part of a larger group that has been appearing here constantly for many years. Leaves unspotted with purple flowers the previous years stalk can be seen still in place  Closer view of the northern marsh orchid. . Usually flowers a little later here than in the open  Close-up of the northern marsh orchid. . Fls Jun - Jul. The common spotted orchid Tegeiran Brych Cyffredin Dactylorhiza fuchsii grows in this location as well and Tegeiran Bera pyramidal orchid Anacamptis pyramidalis, characteristic of fixed dunes, seen here growing close to a pine tree  Click for photo.. But the most interesting is perhaps the rare dune helleborine orchid Epipactis dunensis. In Britain it is found found only on Anglesey and a few coastal areas of northwest England. It was growing between the pines  Dune helleborine orchid. and here are the flowers in close-up  Close-up of the dune hellebirine orchid flowers. . It does grow in the open, but is scattered frequently through this part of the forest. Here it was found on a mossy surface along with a fungus  Dune helleborine in a mossy part in company with a fungus. and this unusual 4 stemmed plant close to fallen lying timber  Unusally 4 stemmed dune helleborine. .

Welsh marsh-orchid. Click to see larger image.

Near the centre of the forest trees were planted on part of, and around, a dune slack that had a particularly fine flora; remnants still survive today. An artificial pool was dug here, possibly in the wettest marshy part; when visited it looked drier than usual following recent dry weather  Artificial pool in Newborough Forest; view looking SW.  Artificial pool in Newborough Forest; view looking W. . Along an old drainage channel in the marshy ground  Old drainage channel cut in the slack. there was a range of plant species including several orchids  Click for photo. . These included the northern marsh-orchid Tegeirian y Migan Dactylorhiza majalis ssp purpurella  Click for photo close-up  Click for photo. and another, closely related, that had many of the characteristics of the Welsh marsh-orchid Tegeirian y Gors Cymreig Dactylorhiza majalis ssp cambrensis  Welsh marsh-orchid first recorded by R. H. Roberts in 1961 near the Cefni estuary, now very scarce; close-up  Close-up of the Welsh marsh-orchid. .

On an open, drier and more calcareous part of the slack the scarce Pyrola rotundifolia ssp maritima Coedwyrdd Crynddail the round-leaved wintergreen was just starting to flower on the 18th  The round-leaved wintergreen starting to flower. . By the 31st more had come out and it was carpeting several locations  The wintergreen carpeting several parts of the dune slack on the 31st July 2004. . It's leaves are all basal with the flower elevated on an unbranched stem  Coedwyrdd Crynddail. and has pure white petals. The flower is visited by several insects Fls Jul - Sep  Click for photo. . Just appearing on the same patch were plants of the perennial grass-of-parnassus Brial y Gors that is not a grass but Parnassia palustris similar to the Saxifrage family  Grass-of-parnassus is not a grass.. This too is becoming scarce having been affected by drainage and loss of habitat; in Wales it is now confined to marsh and dune habitats in the north, but also can be found in Europe. The flowers have 5 white petals with conspicuous green-coloured veins, 5 stamens and a set of 5 nectar secreting feathery sterile stamens. They are pollinated by several kinds of insects Fls Jul - Oct  Brial y Gors .

This year proposals have been put forward for the management of the forest which raised a storm in the local community and press. With greater awareness, in the latter part of the the last century, of ecological issues in the countryside it is clear that planting should not have taken place. Ploughing and planting of dune slacks, marsh and fixed dune habitats destroyed, or greatly reduced, some unique and important habitats. But in places the trees, growing over 40 years, have created an amenity landscape that is enjoyed by many. Parts now resemble the Charente Maritime of western France planted with the maritime pine Pinus pinaster. The forest is a working forest but needs a management plan for the 21st century; there is opportunity for long-term improvement. These include restoration of dune slacks, creation of more forest glades, planting of more native species and introduction of red squirrels. It is hoped that the proposals being put forward jointly by the Forestry Commission and Countryside Council for Wales will restore and enhance as much as possible of this unique habitat.

Coedwig Niwbwrch/ Newborough Forest is managed by the Foresty Commission FC who look after public woodlands on behalf of the Welsh Assembly Government's strategy for trees and woodlands in Wales. Tywyn Niwbwrch/ Newborough Warren is an NNR (National Nature Reserve) It is looked after by the Countryside Council for Wales CCW.

 

REFERENCES

Botanical names: Follow the Flora of the British Isles by A. R. Clapham, T. G. Tutin and D. M. Moore, Cambridge University Press, 3rd Edition 1989.
Welsh names: Follow the Flowering Plants of Wales by R. G. Ellis, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff 1983.


Plants and Flowers of Anglesey  2003 2003

Weather photograph galleries  2001 2001;  2002 2002;  2003 2003; and  2004 2004

Most photographs on this page were taken with a Casio QV-3000EX/lr digital camera, some on film with a Canon EOS 3000, and are watermarked for copyright protection. For use of material in publication please contact the author.


These pages are designed and written by Donald Perkins

Photographs and text are copyright ©: 2004. All rights reserved.

Page dated 22 May 2004.

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