The author: Dr. Donald Perkins at the weather station but, sometimes, on expedition.

Llansadwrn (Anglesey)

Diary 2015

Logo: Llansadwrn Weather - Melin Llynnon, Ynys Môn

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Times are GMT (UTC, Z). Observations at this station [ ] are 24-h 09-09 GMT, some others { } occasionally refer to other 24-h periods, extremes (first indications) are given in bold and are usually 21-21 GMT. When averages are referred to (.) compares with the last decade and [.] with the 30-y climatological average [1981 - 2010]. All data are subject to verification and amendment.

January 2015

Snow on the Carneddau Mountains.


January 1 - the New Year began dull and very windy the SW'ly force 5/6 as pressure 1019 mb was falling. Rain at times with moderate or poor visibility through the morning and afternoon. We were in a warm sector airflow; the temperature had been 10.7C at 0219 GMT and was 10.2C at 0900 GMT rising again to 12.1C at 1657 GMT. Strong gusts 43 mph at 1655 GMT with 59 mph reported in Llandegfan. A cold front at midnight led to moderation of the wind the start of a fall in temperature. [Max 12.0C Min 8.0C Pptn 11.4 mm]. Murlough & Hawarden 15.1C, Gorwel Heights 14.2C; Tyndrum 86.2 mm, Capel Curig 68.8 mm; Manston 0.5h. A heavy burst of rain 9.4 mm/h and 35 mph wind at 0035 GMT on the 2nd then temperatures began to fall and in a clear slot at 09 GMT was 4.5C and 0.2C on the grass. Pressure 1028 mb was rising quickly and there were some cumulus clouds over the mountaintops and here a few spots of rain in the morning from a passing shower. The afternoon fine and mostly sunny before frontal cloud encroached during the evening. [Max 7.6C Min 4.5C Pptn 10.5 mm]. Scilly 11.2C; Cluanie Inn 24.6 mm; Wellesbourne 6.2h, Hawarden 5.7h. With recent rain now ceased at 0900 GMT on the 3rd the sky was still overcast and the wind had backed NE'ly. A fresher feel the temperature AWS 3.9C (dewpoint 3.5C) as a depression was tracking across Wales pressure 1018 mb was falling rapidly. Soon some more rain, on the mountains temperatures were low enough for precipitation to fall as wet snow at 2000 ft on the Carneddau at the Black Ladders, turning showery in the morning. The afternoon was brighter with some sunny spells coming along then cloudier around dusk before clearing during the evening. [Max 5.3C Min 3.1C Pptn 1.4 mm] Exeter 14.0C; Okehampton 26.9 mm; Leuchars 5.2h.

Under cirrus covered sky a view across fields towards Gadlys Ridge and Snowdonia.

More or less a clear sky overnight and as a result the air temperature on the morning of the 4th was down to 1.3C and there was a ground frost -4.0C. There was no white frost, but clear ice frozen on grass along with frozen dew drops. The storm-cock sang for a few minutes. The sky was partly cloudy and the sun appeared over the tops of the Carneddau at 0900 GMT today. There was some fog in low-lying parts including over Llyn Tegid at Bala and coastal areas including Liverpool Bay and on the west coast of Anglesey it was cloudy. Pressure was on 1035 mb and there was a very light SE'ly breeze. It was sunny by 1030 GMT and it was fine and sunny here and on the mountains under snow it was brilliant on the tops. There was a cool breeze in the afternoon with much high cirrus cloud and smoke from a fire in the west, the temperature reached 7.6C at 1216 GMT with the day keeping dry. [Max 8.5C Min 1.3C Grass -4.0C Pptn nil] Scilly 11.0C; Lerwick 7.0 mm; Waddington 6.4h, Hawarden 5.8h. There had been a colourful read sky around 0800 GMT on the 5th and the sky at 0900 GMT had 6 oktas cover as cloud was pushing on to western hills. Visibility was good over the Carneddau where snow was lying at 2750 ft with broken snow at 2500 ft with bright sky towards Conwy. Areas of light snow were evident in places the result of recent showers. The mistle thrush sang continuously this morning from dawn. Mostly cloudy with thicker cloud by evening. [Max 9.1C Min 3.1C Grass -0.2C Pptn 3.2 mm] Achnagart 12.9C, Gorwel Heights 12.2C, Llandegfan 12.4C; Eskdalemuir 6.4 mm; Sheffield 5.0h.

The Dates of first flowering snowdrop  in the garden in Llansadwrn winter 1996-2015.Showery light to moderate rain from 0300 GMT on the 6th with drizzle up to 0900 GMT. The temperature began falling 4C from 0600 GMT to AWS 5.1C as a cold front passed over. Visibility was poor, but the low stratiform cloud and mist was showing signs of lifting and the morning became bright as cumulus clouds developed. With just a small amount of rain the soil was soggy underfoot this morning and approaching moisture saturation point. Pressure 1016 mb was rising quickly as a transient ridge crossed from the west giving a nice sunny afternoon with a temperature of 8.3C. The first snowdrop open of the season was spotted today 6 days earlier than 2014 (graphic right) and 3 days before the median date for the period 1996 - 2014. Cloud increasing with rising temperature in warm sector air moving in during the evening. [Max 8.3C Min 5.2C Pptn 4.7 mm] Swanage 11.3C, Gorwel Heights 11.1C; Achnagart 23.0 mm; Aldergrove 5.5h, Hawarden 5.2h. Showery rain from after midnight on the 7th becoming light to moderate around 07 GMT in the morning. Pressure 1016 mb was falling with a strong Atlantic jetstream aligned between Iceland and Scotland. A deep low 938 mb at 0900 GMT lay over the Denmark Strait. Moderate rain falling at 0900 GMT, visibility poor with low cloud and the SW'ly wind blowing force 6/7 and gale force at Valley. There was a 30 mph speed restriction in force on the Britannia Bridge and gusts of 50 mph were recorded at Gorwel Heights and 52 mph at Gorddinog and Llandegfan. On Snowdon a gust of 125 mph and 91 mph at Mynydd Rhiw and Aberdaron was reported (, 85 mph at Nantmor and Capel Curig; 57 mph at Valley and 38 mph in Llansadwrn. Soil moisture had reached saturation point for the first time this winter on our patch of free draining soil, there was water standing in small puddles and the local road was awash with runoff water; some local fields have been waterlogged for a while with cattle put in sheds. Strong to gale-force winds continued with moderate to heavy rain (14 mm/.h at 1618 GMT) running up another 12 mm by 1800 GMT; pressure bottomed at 1008 mb at 1840 GMT when the wind had also moderated.[Pptn 15.5 mm Max 10.7C Min 4.4C] Hawarden 13.3C Gorwel Heights 11.3C; Capel Curig [66.2 mm]; Manston 1.7h, Hawarden 0.5h. Tenerife 22.1C, Sura, Russia -38.8C.

The 8th began brightly with a clearing sky and cool enough for a touch of ground frost (-0.6C) with some sunshine during the morning. Pressure 1016 mb at first was rising reaching 1023 mb by 1600 GMT before starting to fall. Deep low 983 mb S Iceland was deepening rapidly to 967 mb at 1800 GMT and 960 mb by midnight. Hurricane force 12 winds were experienced in NW Scotland where Stornoway had a record 119 mph gust that brought down large trees. Damage and loss of power for several days was widespread in Scotland. There were gales here too; at Valley there were force 8 gale winds reported between from 2050 GMT. Gorwel Heights and Gorddinog had a gusts of 55 mph and 54 mph from 2300 GMT while gusts of 118 mph were reported on Snowdon, and 99 mph at Mynydd Rhiw and Aberdaron ( Here and at Amlwch 44 mph was recorded. Moles are very active putting up lines of mole hill in the surrounding fields. I hope they stay there! [Max 9.7C Min 5.2C, Pptn 2.6 mm] Swanage 12.0C Gorwel Heights 10.3C; Shoreham {33.0 mm} [Herstmonceux 31.2 mm, Liscombe 22.8 mm, Capel Curig 15.4 mm] Aberdeen 5.5h. Strong winds continued after midnight with gusts of 42 mph at Gorwel Heights at 0110 GMT. The 9th was a dull and sunless day. Pressure at 0900 GMT was 1018 mb was rising and there was thinner cloud looking towards the Nant Ffrancon Pass with a little brightness for a while. Rain from 1120 GMT, heavy 1250 - 1310 GMT up to 12 mm/h, ending 1400 GMT accumulated 11.0 mm. The wind also started picking up during the morning with gusts 55 mph in neighbouring village Llandegfan at 1156 GMT, 44 mph here at 1356 GMT and 49 mph at Gorwel Heights at 1330 GMT. Very mild in the warm sector: Gorwel Heights reached 14.9C at 1700 GMT and Gorddinog AWS 14.8C, Llansadwrn 12.6C AWS 12.8C at 1955 GMT, all without the aid of solar radiation. Exeter 16.5C; [Capel Curig 48.4 mm]; Hurn 3.6h, Valley nil.

With no overnight frosts the 10th began bright and breezy with the W'ly force 4/5 and earlier (05 GMT) touching gale force at Valley and gusting here to 47 mph. The AWS temperature at 0010 GMT was 11.7C, but at Gorwel Heights was 13.9C; Gorddinog AWS reached 13.7C at 0230 GMT. Some extreme wind gusts were reported on the website at 09 GMT over the past 24-hours: Cairngorm 144 mph, Snowdon 137 mph, Aonach 134 mph, Walsall 94 mph, Capel Curig 91 mph, Rhyl 56 mph and Hawarden 49 mph. There was a gust of 57 mph in Llandegfan PWS at 0058 GMT. The temperature began to fall from 11.0.C at 0600 GMT and was 5.7C (dewpoint 2.8C 83% RH) at 0900 GMT. The sky was clearing from 0830 GMT as a cold front cleared away. After recent high winds the drying windows were encrusted with sea salt. Kept fine and bright with some sunshine, out of the wind quite pleasant with a maximum of 6.5C; snow appeared absent on the Carneddau Mountains in the afternoon; Snowdon was obscured and probably having flurries of snow. Became very windy again by evening; Valley reported mws of 44 mph at 17 GMT and continued strengthening to mws 49 mph force 9 by 2200 GMT gusting 65 mph. [Min 5.7C Max 6.5C; Pptn nil] Shoeburyness 14.6C; Lake Vyrnwy [10.8 mm]; Leconfield 6.0h. After a little brightness seen at 0900 GMT over the Nant Ffrancon Pass the 11th was dull and sunless. There had been a touch of ground frost (-0.7C) and there was a moderate W'ly breeze with a temperature of 5.3C. Pressure 1022 mb was rising and with complex low 972 mb between S Greenland and Iceland and high 1037 mb Bay of Biscay we were in a brisk W'ly airflow. Fine most of the day with a slight shower during the afternoon. By evening the wind was strengthening again gusting 44 mph at 2228 GMT when the AWS temperature had risen to 8.3C and 8.6C at Gorwel Heights and Gorddinog. [MIn 3.4C Max 9.6C Pptn 9.0 mm]. Bude 10.1C; [Loch Glascarnoch 57.0 mm, Capel Curig 19.4 mm]; Wattisham 4.3h.

Strong to gale force SSW'ly winds again after midnight on the 12th (Valley f8 between 01 and 07 GMT). Here and at Gorwel Heights gusting to 44 mph and at Gorddinog 51 mph at 0450 GMT. Mild again too; at 0900 GMT here 9.6C and 10.2 C at Gorwel Heights. Moderate rain had ceased and was slight intermittent for a while before a shower at 1000 GMT. Then the sky began to clear in the afternoon as a cold front passed through with a little mostly weak sunshine developing later. [Min 5.2 Max 9.6C Pptn 3.3 mm]. Exeter 12.5C; Capel Curig [43.4 mm]; Aberdeen 5.0h, Valley 0.1h. There had been a touch of ground frost (-0.3C) overnight and the morning of the 13th was mostly cloudy Pressure was steady on 998.8 mb and the temperature 3.5C (dewpoint 0.6C) indicating a 40% chance of some ice precipitation. There were sprinklings on the mountains and by 0930 GMT it was snowing there. Bands of snow showers moved across from the W, but with the temperature rising here we had light rain. The weather station blackbird was missing. Regular for a few years around the garden and coming for tit-bits at 0900 GMT every day and on the vegetable plot when digging. Fine and sunny in the afternoon, but with a cold wind. Small tornadoes were reported in Haverfordwest and Harrow during the day. [Min 2.4C Max 5.2C Pptn 0.3 mm]. Swanage 10.3C; Aboyne min -2.2C; Lerwick [27.8 mm]; Yeovilton 4.5h, Valley 1.8h. White Cistus one of 26 plants still flowering in the garden in mid January. A fine morning on the 14th with snow pellets on the still cold ground the grass minimum down to -3.7C was still reading -0.5C at 0900 GMT. Air temperature was 1.8C (dewpoint -0.4C) but only a 65% chance of ice precipitation. Bright with sunny spells in the morning; there were several fresh flowers open on the Cistus early in the morning, with plenty of buds, petals drop by afternoon. Without any significant air frost so far this winter there were some 26 plants with flowers open in the garden. Turned cloudier by noon with a band of rain approaching. Blustery by 1415 GMT (gust 44 mph at 1500 GMT) and increasing wind strength towards evening reaching Beaufort 8 gale force High gusts reported were Llandegfan 63 mph 1856 GMT, Gorddinog 62 mpg, and Gorwel Heights 56 mph (1750 GMT). With speed restriction of 20 mph on the Britannia Bridge high sided vehicles being advised not to cross. The electricity supply failed at the weather station at 1800 GMT with broken branches hitting the overhead line; an ash tree was also sheared off near its base. Scottish Power engineers did well in very bad conditions to restore the supply by 1930 GMT. With howling wind bursts of heavy rain ended soon after the heaviest 108 mm/h at 2322 GMT [Min 0.7C Max 9.6C Pptn 14.5 mm]. Scilly 11.0C Dalwhinnie -2.3C; [Strathallen 41.2 mm, Keswick 40.4 mm, Capel Curig 30.2 mm]; Manston 5.7h, Valley nil].

A clearing sky brought a fine morning on the 15th, but it was still very windy the SW'ly gusting 42 mph at 0611 GMT. Snowdon summit had a gust of 116 mph, Aberdaron and Mynydd Rhiw 98 and Capel Curig 73 mph ( Hard hat used for obs at 0900 GMT; weather too rough to go out walking today. Showers later in evening with snow pellets falling at 2330 GMT. [Min 1.4C Max 6.8C Pptn 3.5 mm]. Shoeburyness 10.0C; Tyndrum 69.4 mm, Tredegar 33.8 mm; Yeovilton 5.4h, Valley 3.4h. Wet field gateway in Llansadwrn on a sunny afternoon. On the 16th a fine morning with frost on the grass (-2.7C) and a few snow pellets left on the ground in places from overnight showers. The temperature at 0900 GMT was 2.2C and was -5C on the top of Snowdon. There was some fresh snow lying generally above 2000 ft with some as low as 1500 ft. Light winds today with the temperature reaching 5.2C. [Min 1.2C Max 5.2C]. Swanage 9.2C; Baltasound 33.8 mm; Aberdeen 5.3h. A colder night again with a touch of air frost the minimum -0.2C and a ground frost of -4.8C on the morning of the 17th. Bright with good visibility, with some well-developed backlit cumuli over the mountaintops, cirrus and altocumulus. Some more clouds appeared during the day, but sunny spells were frequent. Soil moisture determined today under grass on the free-draining soil at the weather station was 60% of dry mass. Some fields with impeded drainage are much wetter. Cloudier during the evening and there was a shower of snow pellets and snow at 2210 GMT. [Min -0.2C Max 6.7C]. Scilly 8.4C Drumnadrochit min -6.5C; Port Ellen 21.6 mm; Hawarden 5.5h, Valley 4.2h. Snow pellets with snow showers continued after midnight and by the morning of the 18th there was ice precipitation <50% cover on the ground (grass min -6.6C and still reading -2.5C. A light NW'ly air from the N and moderate visibility. Soon after 0900 GMT there was a slight shower of freezing rain. There was a 10-min shower of snow at 1230 GMT and with the wind backing NNE'ly strengthened suddenly from calm to 25 mph as a weather front passed over. The wind moderated only slowly during the afternoon. [Min -1.2 Max 4.2C Pptn 0.6 mm]; Scilly 7.5C Topcliffe min -8.5C; Lerwick 17.8 mm; Bristol 7.2h.

Nearly always in flower Gorse with snow on the mountains.

A wintry morning on the 19th with early showers of snow pellets and flakes of snow covering concrete, but the grass had <50% cover. Snowing more so on the mountains with 50% cover at 1750 ft and with some as low as 750 ft on the lower slopes of the Carneddau. At 0900 GMT the temperature was 0.0C (dewpoint -1.8C). Overnight the air minimum had been -1.5C and down to -6.0C on the grass. Snow in the morning  covered the Carneddau Mountains to a low level. Convective shower nears Llanfairfechan. Another shower of the same at 0910 GMT and a shower with larger flakes of snow at 1000 GMT. Showers continued across the mountains, but here fine with mostly weak sunshine for a while the temperature reaching 5.0C . Cloudier later and overcast in the evening and again turning colder. Scilly 6.9C; Tulloch Bridge min -12.5C; Fylingdales 12.8 mm; Bristol 7.1h, Valley 3.4h. Not quite so cold overnight -1.2 in the air and -5.6C on the grass. Almost calm on the morning of the 20th, fine and bright with weak sunshine at 0900 GMT in a lee clearance in a S'ly air. Some snow pellets left on the ground with a moderate white frost and a little hoar frost. Pressure was on 1009 mb with high 1037 mb N Azores and low 970 mb Denmark Strait. The sky looked darker in the W later on and Valley reported light rain from noon. The temperature was 4.2C around noon and there were a few spots of rain observed at 1530 GMT. Plymouth 9.7C, Low max ice days Dalwhinnie -0.8C & Lake Vyrnwy -0.2C; Braemar min -11.7C; Killowen 17.2 mm; Waddington 4.4h]. View SE from the weather station. View W from the weather station. Dull and damp on the morning of the 21st, there had been a little grass frost -2.1C, but no air frost. Pressure 1005 mb was rising with low pressure 997 mb Western Isles and 1000 mb W entrance to the English Channel. A N'ly breeze and the day continued overcast sunless with some fine drizzle in the murky afternoon as cloud thickened. [Min 0.9C Max 3.5C]; Chivenor 8.2C, Strathallen min -6.8C; Swanage 23.2 mm; Thomastown 3.9h. In contrast the 22nd was back to bright and sunny weather with pressure 1021 mb rising quickly. Hardly a cloud in the sky at 0900 GMT, cold with air temperature on -0.2C and on the grass the minimum was -5.0C. The ground was frozen and there was a little hoar frost with an extensive white frost on grassy fields. There was inversion mist in the Menai Strait and there was a good cover of snow on the mountains above 1750 ft with some as low as 1250 ft. A fine sunny day with a maximum of 5.7C in the early afternoon. There was a nice peach coloured sky for about an hour after sunset. Scilly 8.8C, Aviemore min -11.4C; Bradford 7.6 mm; Aberporth 6.7h.

There were some small patches of blue sky to be seen at first on the 23rd, but these disappeared and the day was cloudy and dull. Pressure 1020 mb was falling and low 971 mb near the Denmark Strait had associated fronts over Ireland and NW Scotland. There was showery rain by 1140 GMT and slight rain in the afternoon turning to heavier rain later. Frost and frozen dewdrops on grass. Maximum temperature here in warm sector air was 8.8C, Gorwel Heights had 10.2C at 1610 GMT and Gordinnog AWS 10.0C at 1900 GMT, just before a cold front arrived, with bursts of heavy rain and small hail, resulting in a drop of 5.5C. [Pptn 12.7 mm]. Murlough 11.3C, Hawarden 10.5C; Achnagart 25.0 mm, Capel Curig 20.2 mm; Wattisham 7.3h. Ewes and lambs just put out on to grass. The sky cleared after midnight on the 24th and at 0900 GMT hardly a cloud except some backlit cumulus over the mountains and a long contrail overhead. No air frost, but dew drops on grass were well frozen and leaves frosted white. Visibility was poor and remained so through the day. Sunny at first in the afternoon then became cloudier with some drizzle by evening. [Min 0.6C Max 8.0C, trace]. Scilly 9.5C; Resallach 9.4 mm; Manston 7.8h. The 25th began fine with some brightness in the SE, but the sky looked dark to the W. There was a moderate SW'ly wind and soon slight drizzle began. Pressure was steady on 1028 mb with high 1036 mb over the Bay of Biscay. Low 958 mb WSW of Iceland had an associated warm front over Irish Sea. A mild spell again the temperature at 0900 GMT 7.6C (dewpoint 5.1C) rose to AWS 8.7C at 2036 GMT and 11.2C at Gorwel Heights at 2000 GMT. Moderately windy. In the afternoon fog developed <200 m visibility and persisted into the evening along with the wind and mild temperature. There was moderate to heavy rain from 2300 GMT [Min 0.8C Max 8.7C Pptn 9.0 mm]. Achnagart 12.2C, Hawarden 11.8C; Benson min -4.9C; Achnagart 27.0 mm, Capel Curig [14.0 mm]; Hawarden 3.1h. Moderate rain after midnight on the 26th and as a cold front passed a heavier burst 4.4 mm/h at 0236 GMT then moderating wind and falling temperature. The sky cleared and at dawn there was a touch of ground frost (-0.5C), but the sky was beginning to cloud over again by 0900 GMT when the temperature was 3.3C, misty with poor to moderate visibility, at first becoming clearer and sunnier by 1100 GMT. Scattered clouds in the fine afternoon with some sunny spells. [Min 3.0C Max 7.2C]. Shoreham 12.0C; Kinlochewe 10.8 mm, Capel Curig 9.8 mm; Aberdeen 5.8h, Valley 2.8h]. Overcast and dull with a spell light rain and drizzle before 08 GMT on the 27th. Overnight there had been a ground frost -2.2C and the temperature at 0900 GMT was 5.1C 98% RH. The sky looked lighter in the E and dark to the W, there were further spells of drizzle at times through the day that remained dull until a little brightness and a glimpse of weak sunshine at the end of the afternoon. Fyvie Castle 10.3C, AWS Gorddinog 10.1C Gorwel Heights 9.9C; Kinlochewe 10.6 mm; Manston 3.8h.

The 28th began still in warm sector air with temperatures 8.5C here at 06 GMT and 10.1C at Gorddinog AWS 0541 GMT and Gorwel Heights 9.9C 0347 GMT. A cold front began to pass over at 0730 GMT with heavy bursts of rain and small hail falling up to 44 mm/h at Gorwel Heights; 54 mm/h in Llansadwrn, and 70 mm/h at Gordinnog at 0750 GMT gusting to 45 mph and over 100 mph on Snowdon where the temperature change was +5C to -4C. The cold front introduced showery polar maritime air and there were more showers of ice precipitation from sea level up to the mountain summits where there were scatterings left on the ground by midmorning. The afternoon was windy with some sunny spells, well developed cumulus clouds were in the vicinity, a cumulonimbus over the mountains,and there were slight showers of snow pellets at times continuing into the evening [Min 4.5 Max 5.2 Pptn 0.6 mm]. Swanage 11.1C; Achnagart 32.2 mm, Capel Curig 26.0 mm; Valley 3.9h. Wintry scene on the rockery banks as Erica flowers. The 29th dawned with showers of snow pellets and small snow flakes. At 0900 GMT the temperature was 2.4C (dewpoint 0.5C) and a 55% chance of more ice precipitation. With the temperature falling this the chance increased and soon there was sleet turning to light snow that covered most of the ground here and in Llandegfan. The temperature at 1119 GMT was 0.5C. The snow had melted locally by 1300 GMT as the temperature rose to 3.0C; the afternoon had further showers of snow pellets and sunny spells. By evening the temperature was rising and there were showers of rain either side of midnight, but was of snow on the mountains. [Min 2.1 Max 4.3 Pptn 4.4 mm]. Swanage 11.1C; Scilly 8.6C, Aboyne min -4.3C Spadeadem low max -0.5C; Derrylin Cornhoule 21.4 mm, Bala 12.2 mm; Boulmer 5.8 h. Lightening skies from dawn on the 30th and a fine morning. No sign of any ice precipitation and the temperature 4.3C highest of the past 24-h. Light NW'ly breeze, passing cumulus clouds and a little sunshine. Frequent showers of snow pellets and sunny spells in the afternoon . Lowest temperatures were in the evening then were rising as cloud encroached. [Min 0.5C Max 7.5C Pptn 0.9 mm]. Scilly 8.9C, Tulloch Bridge min -11.0C; Resallach 31.4 mm, Capel Curig 16.0 mm; Edinburgh 7.0h. A fine morning on the 31st with very good visibility and a very cold wind. The temperature was 5.0C, but the force 5 NNE'ly mad it feel a lot colder. There had been a shower of rain earlier then the day was fine and dry with some sunshine in the afternoon. [Min 1.4C Max 6.5C]. Cardiff 7.6C; Kinlochewe 22.6 mm; Glasgow 7.2h .

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February 2015

February 1 - began fine and sunny with snow on the Snowdonia Mountains. Pressure 1005 mb was rising as a ridge of high pressure moved in from the Atlantic. View SE from the weather station. View S. Mist developed over a covering of snow.As a result the strong N'ly wind moderated through the day. Low 972 mb was over the Baltic. Turning cloudier by evening there were snow showers off the Irish Sea from 1900 GMT. [Min 2.2C Max 5.2C Pptn 5.2 mm]. Cardiff 6.9C, Loch Glascarnoch min -4.4C; Craibstone, Aberdeen 19.0 mm; Leuchars 7.1h, St Athan 5.4h. After midnight on the 2nd frequent snow showers left an average 3.0 cm of lying snow, 4.0 cm in places here, at 0900 GMT. The air minimum was 0.3C and was 0.2C (dewpoint -0.4); the grass minimum was covered with snow, but had been down to -4.8C. Bright at first with some weak sunshine and the odd flurry of snow; later mist developed over the snow for a while. The A5 was closed for a time between Capel Curig and Betws-y-coed because of snow; several schools were reported closed in Gwynedd. An accident involving several vehicles on the A55 near Gwalchmai on Anglesey was attributed to the weather conditions. Light showers of ice precipitation continued dying out late in the afternoon leading to a clear sky in the evening. [Min -0.3 Max 2.3 Pptn 0.7 mm]. Scilly 7.3C, min Shap -7.6C, Sennybridge -5.4C; Lusa 13.0 mm; Manston 8.0h. Distant cumulonimbus clouds observed over the Irish Sea to the N.With clear skies overnight the air minimum on the 3rd was -2.5C and on the ground over snow -7.6C. There was snow lying 2 cm at 0900 GMT although the ground was <100% covered. A fine and sunny morning with very good visibility. Snow petered out towards the village and there was no snow in Beaumaris - some untreated local roads remained icy. Distant cumulonimbus clouds were seen on the north-western horizon in the afternoon, these were well out over the Irish Sea at the time. By evening the sky had turned cloudy so temperatures were not so low. [Min -2.5 Ground -7.6C; Max 4.2C; Pptn nil]. Porthmadog 6.9C; Dalwhinnie -10.8C; Bridlington 16.6 mm; Aberporth 7.9h.

Snowdonia cloudscape and snow.

Fine and sunny on the morning of the 4th the cloud having cleared, but no air frost. Bare soil was frozen hard with the ground minimum -7.5C. There few a few cumuli over the mountains with crepuscular rays as the sun rose over the Carneddau. Snow was lying at 1250 ft with 30% cover at 650 ft. Snow on Carnedd Llewelyn and C. Dafydd.Very good visibility and a sunny afternoon the temperature rising to 5.3C; cloudier later. [Min 0.4C, Max 5.3C, Pptn 0.7C].Lenticular altocumuli seen to the S at 0900 GMT. Cloudy overnight skies and no air frost on the 5th although the grass minimum was down to -2.7C. Showery precipitation from 0600 GMT seemingly fell as rain here, but snow on the mountains a little higher as 450 ft. A little remnant snow remained in shady places around the garden and fields locally. Sunny, with visibility moderate at first improving later. Dark clouds were seen in the W in the afternoon and showers of rain were reported at Valley, none in Llansadwrn. A fine frosty evening. [Min -0.8C, Max 7.6C]. Strathallen 9.9C, Porthmadog 9.5C; Loch Glascarnoch 18.6 mm, Eskdalemuir 6.2h, Aberporth 5.2h. Pressure 1036 mb was rising slowly on the 6th within the developed UK high. A cold night with slight hoar frost with air minimum -0.8C and -4.0C on the grass, the ground was frozen hard underfoot. A light NE'ly breeze and very good hazy visibility, a few clouds and several contrails turned pink around 08 GMT before the sun has risen. A sunny morning and afternoon with an almost cloudless sky on Anglesey cloud keeping well to the W and N. At Aberffraw after a fairly dry winter the most dune slacks were wet, but not flooded (photo below). Part of the willow slack was flooded. Partly flooded willow slack at Aberffraw.While mosses were green most other vegetation was as expected looking brown. The Murray Grey eco-grazers had been on the dunes, but were on the common today where there was also a large flock (50 or so) of lapwings. There were more lapwings in a field near Penlon, Newborough. [Max 6.1C Min -0.8C]. Helens Bay 9.7C, Tulloch Bridge min -7.2C; Loch Glascarnoch 10.8 mm; Lyneham 8.5h, Valley 8.4h. On the 7th low frontal cloud had encroached from the N and it was overcast and dull. Pressure 1040 mb was rising with high 1044 mb NW of Malin Head. Some breaks appeared overhead at 0940 GMT - they disappeared and it was dull again and cool the temperature rising little to 5.0C. Just before sunset dramatic colours developed in the sky and moving through several hues remained brilliant for over an hour. [Max 5.0C Min 0.5C Grass -3.0C] Murlough 10.4C, Braemar min -8.0C; Aviemore 2.0 mm; Camborne 8.4h.

View of Pentre Berw with snow on the mountains.Fog developed around midnight 7/8th and was still fog at 0900 GMT on the 8th with the sky obscured and calm. Cold overnight the minimum -0.7C just before (0834 GMT) and -3.1C on the grass so that deposits of water were frozen. Pressure was 1043 mb with the high 1044 mb near Shannon. Visibility improved a little then fog returned at 10 GMT before clearing by noon. The afternoon was dull and the sun was not seen until setting under the cloud sheet when again brilliant colours developed for more than an hour after sunset. The SKIRON dust model had Saharan dust surrounding the UK on the periphery the high - none has been deposited here, but it could be enhancing the brilliant evening sky colours. [Max 6.7 Min -0.7C grass -3.1C] Durham 12.1C Dalwhinnie -6.8C; Lerwick 1.2 mm; Camborne 8.9h. The 9th began overcast and dull and remained so all day at ground level. There was little or no wind with the pressure was steady on 1028 mb. In the afternoon some mountain summits were in the clear above the cloud for a while. With no solar radiation the temperature struggled to reach 5.0C early in the afternoon. [Max 5.0C Min -0.4C grass -1.0C] Liscombe 13.1C Topcliffe Min -5.4C; Cassley 2.0 mm; Nottingham 8.8h. An early primrose in flower in hedgerow on peacock Hill.Much the same on the 10th, the cloud blanket overnight resulted in mild no frost temperatures - 3.0C on the grass. Low cloud here and as low as 1000 ft on the lower slopes of the Carneddau not lifting a lot during the day. Sunless. [Max 4.5C Min 3.3C] Tain Range 10.4C Lake Vyrnwy min -0.2C; Fair Isle 1.0 mm, Bulmer 8.9h. And on the 11th with the gloom continuing sheets of grey stratocumulus covering the UK and most of Europe. Overcast with a light SE'ly breeze the temperature 3.3C, but RH of 86% with concrete and grass dry. Pressure was steady on 1025 mb and with the jetstream to the N and high 1029 mb over Germany nothing was moving. More high-pressure over the Atlantic 1024 mb and 1027 mb Greenland. Dull, sunless and nil rainfall. [Max 5.0C Min 1.1 Grass 0.9C]. Harris Quidnish 8.1C; Eskdalemuir 0.6 mm; Aberdeen 7.7h. And, yes still the same on the 12th, dull and murky. Pressure was down a little on 1020 mb and there was very little variation in temperature and no frost. From an overnight minima of 3.2C it had risen to 4.8C at 0900 GMT and rising to 6.5C at 1243 GMT. Visibility was moderate all day with haze. For the second day it was sunniest in Aberdeen. [Max 8.0C Min 3.2C] Fyvie Castle 11.0C Aboyne min -5.7C; Achnagart 7.0 mm; Aberdeen 8.4h.

The 'brown' middle slack at Aberffraw Dunes in winter.

A bit different on the 13th as temperatures were rising reaching 8.0C here, 10.3 C at Gorwel Heights and 10.5C (screen) at Gorddinog at 0900 GMT these by convention were creditied to the 12th. Also a few spots of rain had fallen. Pressure 996 mb was falling quickly with a low 987 mb over Ireland. Turning brighter with a few glimpses of sunshine before showers in the afternoon the precipitation falling as snow pellets and snow at 1500 ft on the Carneddau Mountains. [Max 9.5C Min 4.8C Pptn 1.5 mm] Killowen 10.7C Porthmadog 10.4C; Usk 21.2 mm; Bude 2.2h, Valley 1.4h. By the morning of the 14th fog had developed and at 08 GMT visibility was 200 m, but then as the fog dispersed was very poor at 0900 GMT and soon turned sunny with Valley sunniest reporting 7.4h. [Max 8.7C Min 2.8C Grass 0.0C] Bridgefoot 12.3C Altnaharra min -6.4C; Reading Univ. 11.0 mm; Valley 7.4h. On the 15th with 5/8 of clear sky the temperature at 0744 GMT had dipped to 2.0C, on the grass -3.0C, rising to 4.2C at 0900 GMT. An air of a breeze from the SE shown by smoke drift and very good visibility the sun rising over the Carneddau at 0800 GMT. We were in a clear area between and frontal cloud to the W over Ireland, low cloud/ fog over central England and sheets of stratocumulus in the E over the North Sea. In a light SE'ly the temperature had risen to 12.6C by 1300 GMT (Gorwel Heights 11.8C and Gordinnog 12.4C). There was light to moderate rain from 2300 GMT. [Max 12.6C Min 2.0C Rain 8.0 mm] Bridgefoot 12.4C and min -1.5C; [Islay 23.8 mm Capel Curig 16.6 mm]; Morecambe 7.5C, Valley 6.6C.

The 16th began dull and damp with poor misty visibility after overnight rain, but brightened up with sunshine coming along. Pressure 1012 mb was rising with low 972 Iceland and high-pressure 1046 mb Gulf of Finland and 1033 mb Azores. Shower of rain and small hail around 2100 GMT. [Max 8.6C Min 3.9C] Plymouth 9.8C; Cluanie Inn 20.2 mm; Valley & Thomastown 5.0h. Some clear sky after midnight, aurora were seen from Anglesey and along the North Wales coast including Llandudno; frost developed early on the 17th with the air minimum down to -0.5C and -5.9C on the grass. There was a shower of snow pellets just before 08 GMT and some pellets were still on the extensively frosted ground at 0900 GMT. There was a little rime on the rim of the copper raingauge. The sky was becoming mostly cloudy the frost soon melting; and there were some vertical crepuscular rays looking towards the Ogwen Valley. Visibility was clear and very good at first becoming hazy later. Pressure was 1036 mb in a ridge from high 1048 mb over the Celtic Sea. [Max 8.2C Min -0.5C] Plymouth 11.1C Topcliffe min -4.3C; Resallach 17.4 mm; Wittering 9.3h.

Overcast and dull on the morning of the 18th with moderate visibility and low cloud. The sky looked lighter towards Conwy, but W Anglesey had mist and drizzle. Slow to lift and there no clearance the day sunless. Across the water the sun was shining along the coast towards Llanfairfechan where the temperature rose to 13.4C at 1320 GMT and 13.2C at Gorddinog (screen), while here under the cloud the highest was 8.5C. [Rain 7.0 mm] Fyvie Castle 15.6C Gorwel Heights 13.4C, Hurn min -4.6C; Achnagart 54.6 mm; Lyneham 9.5h. On the 19th with continuous moderate rain and standing water on saturated ground at 0900 GMT (8.6 mm/h and 12 mm/h at Gordinnog) introduced another mostly dull and wet day. Pressure was 1015 mb with low 970 mb Iceland and high 1037 mb Azores. The temperature 7.8C (the day's maximum) was falling as a cold front passed over. The rain ceased and the morning brightened with a shower of rain and soft hail at 1240 GMT. Brighter again in the afternoon with glimpses of sunshine late in the afternoon. [Rain 5.1 mm] Murlough 11.3C Frittenden min -0.6C; Capel Curig 43.2 mm; Aldergrove 6.1h. The sky had cleared for a while in the night allowing the minimum to fall to 0.5C and to -4.5C on the grass freezing the wet grass. It had turned cloudier by dawn on the 20th , but at 0900 GMT there were signs of the sky clearing again with a little sunshine at times. A little fresh snow was seen on the mountain summits. A few slight showers of rain from 1530 GMT. [Max 7.5C Min 0.5C Rain 0.5 mm]. Scilly Is. 9.4C Katesbridge min -4.1C; Herstmonceux 19.6 mm; Kinloss 7.3h. After midnight on the 21st there were slight showers ice precipitation with tell-tail snow pellets marks recorded on the hailometer. There was a little fresh snow on the Carneddau slopes as low as 1750 ft near the Black Ladders. There was a light NW'ly breeze and the air temperature 2.8C the grass minimum having been down to -3.0C. Bright with some sunshine, wintry showers continued on the mountain summits during the morning. Cumuli were in the vicinity and we had a few spots from a passing dark one in the afternoon. The sky clearer later and it was a frosty on the ground by evening. [Max 8.8C Min 1.2C Pptn tr]. Solent 9.4C; Balmoral For. 16.0 mm; Boulmer 9.2h.

A fine morning at first on the 22nd, but it was overcast and precipitation was in sight at 0900 GMT this falling as snow on the mountains as low as 1500 ft. Pressure was 1001 mb, and it was windy the S'ly force 5 and strengthening. The temperature was 4.6C (dewpoint 1.8C), but only a 20% chance of ice precipitation, . We did not have any, but there was a slight rain shower at 0920 GMT when the mountains were closed in with low cloud. A frontal system moved eastward across the Irish Sea with triple point over Cumbria in the afternoon (Gorwel Height wind gust 47 mph) when the temperature here dropped to 3.8C then rising again to 8.9C at 1628 GMT and 10.5C at Gorwel Heights at 1830 GMT. Just before midnight the air temperature falling again was 4.8C and RH 80%. [Max 8.9C Min 0.3C Pptn 4.4]. Murlough 11.6C Gorddinog 11.0C, Benson min -5.9C; Threave 32.8 mm; Manston 4.9h. Strong winds continued on the 23rd with pressure on 986 mb with low 952 mb off Cape Wrath, Scotland. It was fairly bright at 0900 GMT with 6 oktas cloud cover and good, but hazy visibility, and there were some sunny spells. It was difficult to walk along the Gadlys Ridge in the afternoon the wind near gale force. I saw a flock 45 of redwings were seen on the sheltered wet field at Curlew Gate on Peacock Hill. In the evening gales were reported at Valley (Gusts at Gorddinog 49 mph, Llansadwrn & Gorwel Heights gusts 39 mph) before the wind dropped with only a small temperature fall of about 1.5C here at 2200 GMT. As a result a quieter night. [Max 7.3C Min 2.7C Grass -0.5C]. Gravesend 9.4C Valley 7.9C Cassley min -3.0C; Tyndrum 40.8 mm; Leeming 8.3h.

Breezy again on the morning of the 24th, but fairly bright with good hazy visibilty. Pressure 1003 mb was rising with the low moved E to be over Shetland while pressure was high 1037 over the Atlantic W of Cap Finisterre. The afternoon had sunny spells and with some dark cumuli around a few spots of rain at 1500 GMT; Valley reported a small hail shower at the same time. [Max 7.6C Min 3.2C Grass -0.1C]. St. James Park 10.8C; Cassley 31.0 mm; Leuchars 8.6h. After midnight on the 25th there were showers of small hail and the sky was mostly cloudy in the morning. Pressure 1013 mb was rising with a new low 964 mb SE Iceland. The day kept dull, signs of brightness in the morning did not improved and the afternnon thicjer cloud brought drizzle by midafternoon thew rain later. One curlew spotted at Curlew Gate and 5 crows in another field graze by sheep; we seem surrounded by sheep and lambs at the moment. With a warm front crossing the Irish Sea temperature remained elevated in the evening being 10.0C at 2042 GMT and was 13.3C at Gorwel Heights and 13.2C at Gorddinog just after midnight. [Max 10.0C Min 3.8C 13.0 mm]. Bournemouth 14.0C Usk 13.9C Aboyne min -4.2C; Tyndrum 12.4 mm [Spadeadam 24.2 mm]; Boulmer 6.7C]. Moderate to heavy rain after 02 GMT heaviest around 07 GMT on the 26th 13.4 mm/h had ceased by 0900 GMT with 13.0 mm recorded. Enough now that the local soil is saturated to leave small puddles about the weather station. At 0420 GMT the temperature was 9.4C and this had fallen to 5.7C by 0830 GMT as a result of a cold front associated with low 944 mb SE Iceland. The sky was leaden and visibility was poor. At Gorwel Heights the temperature at 0156 GMT was 13.3C and 13.2C at Gorddinog at 0010 GMT in warm sector air Föhn-like wind, the maxima for the 24-h ending 0900 today. Slow to brighten in the morning, but brightening all through the afternoon being quite sunny later. [Max 9.0C Min 5.7C Rain nil] Max Exeter AP 11.9C; Spadeadam 32.0 mm, Bala 23.6 mm; Aldergrove 6.1h, Valley 5.5h.

New season Hellebore purpurea flowers in the garden.With a transient ridge of high-pressure passing over the sky overnight was mostly clear and there was a moderate ground frost (-4.0C). At 0900 GMT on the 27th the temperature had risen from the minimum of 1.0C to 3.2C. Clear sky overhead with some cumuli to the south hugging the mountaintops. Mostly sunny day the temperature 7.7C in the afternoon, turning cloudier later. The purple, red and white Hellebores in the garden are starting to flower, there odd flowers of other species including Azalea too although the white Cistus has stopped flowering. White and pink flowering spring Ericas are covered with flowers waiting for bees to put in an appearance. [Max 8.2C Min 1.0C Rain 0.3 mm] Plymouth 10.6C Bournemouth min -3.5C; Kinlochewe 10.2 mm; Wittering 8.8h. Another 24-h with night time maximum temperatures: 8.2C here at 0339 GMT and 10.1C at 0344 at Gorwel Heights. The morning of the 28th began overcast with thinning cloud the sun breaking through around 0900 GMT. Visibility was poor and there was a moderate SW'ly breeze. Glimpses of sunshine at times in the morning, the wind freshening at times the cloud thickening in the afternoon. [Max 9.5C Min 3.2C] Hereford 13.2C; Morpeth Cockle Park 1.7h...

The month ended with a precipitation total of 50.8 mm (72%) & [65%] of averages, lowest since 2010 ranking 28th since 1929. The mean temperature 4.6C (-0.8) & [-0.7] of averages was lowest since 2013 ranking 10th since 1979.

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March 2015

Fresh snow fell in the afternoon on St. David's day.

March 1 - DYDD DEWI SANT - with a moderate WSW'ly breeze, fairly mild overnight and no frost. Low 964 mb was over the S Norwegian Sea, but here pressure 997 mb was rising. Later the morning turned cloudier and in the afternoon a band of precipitation moved across from the west falling as light snow above 1250 ft on mountains from Llyn, Snowdon, and Glyderau to the Carneddau, most on the west of the range. Fresh snowfall on the Glyderau and Snowdon. There are daffodils out in gardens and hedgerows again this year in time for for Saint David's Day celebrations, but I was looking forward to freshly dug leeks from the garden for my dinner. [Max 6.7C Min 4.2C] Exeter AP 12.3C; Cluanie Inn 45.0 mm, Lake Vyrnwy 13.2 mm; Manston 8.9h. The odd showers of snow pellets overnight and again on the 2nd at 0900 GMT. We were in a cool showery polar maritime air stream, the day kept fine although the force 4/5 wind felt keen. There was a shower of sleet at 1700 GMT this falling as snow at higher levels on the mountains. [Max 7.4C Min 2.0C] St. James Park 9.6C Braemar min -2.0C; Bainbridge 14.8 mm; Lyneham 8.6h. On the 3rd no air frost, but on the ground a slight white frost (grass min -2.3C) was disappearing quickly at 0900 GMT, pressure 1012 mb was rising with low 992 mb over the Gulf of Finland and another low centre 995 mb S of the Denmark Strait. Another fine breezy day, with some good sunny spells, the sky cloudier by late afternoon when there was moderate to strong winds on Gadlys Ridge. [Max 6.7C Min 1.4C Grass -2.3C] St. James Park 10.3C; Cluanie Inn 22.6 mm; Shawbury 9.3h]. A bright start on the 4th with the sky clearing and a light SW'ly breeze. Pressure 1030 mb was rising in another transient ridge from high 1041 over sea area FitzRoy. Moderate visibility with the sun breaking through haze and sunny spells developing through the morning. The wind lessened and by afternoon it was right for honey bees to come out (first time this season) and be on the heather banks in warm sunshine in the garden. The bright blue flowers of Chionodoxa glory-of-the-snow are out on the rockery banks and were looking lovely in the warm sunshine. The local farmer was busy spreading fertilisers upwind on the grass fields. [Max 10.4C Min 2.0C Grass -2.0C Pptn nil]. Durham 11.5C; Tyndrum 17.2 mm; Leeming 10.1h. In contrast the 5th was overcast and dull with a moderate to strong SW'ly wind. Pressure was 1037 mb, but with low 966 mb over the Denmark Strait we were in another one of those strong W'ly airstreams. [Max 8.9C Min 2.8C Grass -1.6C Pptn nil] Fyvie Castle 13.5C, Rhyl 10.5C; Cluanie Inn 19.0 mm; Herstmonceaux 7.4h. Similar day on the 6th the strong winds continuing. The height 1040 mb was over N France while pressure here 1030 mb was falling. Low cloud moving in on the western mountains, but some bright spells and glimpses of sunshine. Too windy to risk working out of doors. The wind resulted in Föhn enhanced temperatures on the mainland during the afternoon. At Gorwel Heights AWS 12.8C at 1512 GMT with relative humidity (RH) down to 32% and at Gorddinog AWS 12.7C and 36% RH compared with Llansadwrn AWS 8.7C 65% RH. At a similar time Glyn Roberts in Dwygyfylchi downwind of Llanfairfechan recorded 14.7C. Very wet in Scotland. [Max 10.0C Min 6.6C Grass 5.8C] Hereford 15.0C; Cluanie Inn 51.2 mm; Bristol 8.6h. Strong winds around midnight on the 7th gusts 36 mph here, 46 mph at Gorddinog and 53 mph in Llandegfan 0149 GMT. Pressure was steady on 1018 mb at 0900 GMT. Anglesey remained shrouded in cloud during the day, persistent strong wind with drizzling rain and did not go out. From the start the sky looked bright in Llanfairfechan and coast eastward where it was sunny. Conditions were again right for Föhn-enhanced temperatures with AWS 13.2C at Gorddinog at 1410 GMT, 13.4C at Gorwel Heights at 1250 GMT rising to 15.0C (57% RH) at 1410 GMT, and David Lee reported a remarkable 18.6C at the same time (1410 GMT) at Glyn Robert's station further downwind in Dwygyfylchi during a 2 hour windy period with the RH was down to 30% . In Llansadwrn at the same time the temperature was 8.9C and 90% RH. This Föhn event represents between +4.0 degree and a remarkable +9.4 degree enhancement on the day's Llansadwrn maximum temperature. [Max 9.2 Min 7.1C Pptn 3.9 mm] Murlough 17.5C; Cluanie Inn 133.2 mm Capel Curig 1.0 mm; St Athan 9.3h.

Strong winds continued around midnight on the 8th with gusts 40 mph in Llansadwrn, 42 mph Gorwel Heights and 46 mph at Gorddinog. By morning winds had moderated and there was fog at 0730 GMT this lifted by 0900 GMT when visibility was poor in light to moderate rain resulting in a little standing water. Later a more pleasant afternoon becoming sunny the temperature rising, from the highest of the month overnight minimum of 7.6C, to 10.3C. Charlsfield 15.4C; Achnagart 29.6 mm Capel Curig 18.4 mm; Manston 6.6h. The sky had cleared in the night resulting in the hardest ground frost -4.5C of the month, and air minimum 1.0C, but the clearer sky early (that turned red at 07 GMT) on the 9th had vanished by 0900 GMT. The strong wind had returned and was S'ly force 5 soon rising to force 7/8 around 10 GMT when Valley reported mws 41 mph. Gorwel Heights reported at gust of 54 mph at 1100 GMT. Gorwel Heights again reported temperature enhancement 13.4C at 1250 GMT and 12.9C at Gorddinog compared with Llansadwrn's 10.3C. [Max 10.3C Min 1.0C Pptn 3.7 mm] Murlough 13.0C Min Topcliffe -5.4C; Achnargart 22.6 mm Capel Curig 15.4 mm; Kinloss 4.8h.

The 10th began with hardly a cloud in the sky with frost on the grass (minimum -4.4C). Pressure 1031 was rising quickly and while there were cumuli to the N and the odd passing cloud the day was sunny with moderate visibility and haze.. There were masses of honeybees on the banks of flowering heathers in the garden, moving around seeking the sunniest parts during the day. I counted 15 large early bumblebees as well, these will tolerate the shade and be about on cold dull days when the honeybees are not. The population of wild bees has built up over the years since we established the bee-friendly garden and we see different species all through the spring, summer and autumn. [Max 11.4C, Min 1.1C] Herstmonceaux 14.3C min Pembray Sands -2.4C; Cassley 18.8 mm; Morecambe 10.6h, Valley 10.1h. Mostly clear sky overnight, but cloud was developing on the morning of the 11th. Pressure 1021 mb was falling with a frontal-wave low off the Western Isles and warm front over the Irish Sea. Highs 1038 mb were over N Finland and 1027 mb over Spain. There were spots of rain from 0840 GMT and the SSW'ly force 4 was strengthening. Light rain in the morning, keeping dull with slight rain at first in the afternoon, then clearing later with shallow fog formed on the fields before evening. [Max 11.9C Min 2.7C Grass -3.9C Pptn 3.2 mm] Northolt 14.7C Aboyne -6.7C; Cluanie Inn 23.4 mm Capel Curig 15.4 mm; Herstmonceaux 7.1h Valley 2.9h.

A rather dull morning on the 12th with thickening cloud. Pressure 1019 mb was falling with a warm front over the Irish Sea associated with low 964 mb S Iceland. Pressure was high 1038 mb over N Finland and 1027 mb over Spain. Showery rain at first turning moderate to heavy at times in the afternoon, local roads were awash. Jointly with the 11th the maximum 11.9C was highest of the month! The day's rainfall, 18.5 mm, was the largest of the month. It rained from 1300 to 0200 GMT the 24-h having 14 hours rainfall duration. [Max 11.9C Min 3.9C Pptn 18.5 mm]. Dull again on the 13th, signs of brighter and lighter patches did not develop and we had a sunless day. An occluded front was over central England and France. Fields had pools of water on them and there was slight drizzle and or slight rain through the day, but of unmeasurable amount, it just made for a horrible day! The day's maximum 6.1C, was also lowest of the month! [Max 6.1C Min 3.6C] Cranwell 13.0C; Bainbridge 26.6 mm; Thomastown 10.9C.

3.1415 Pi Day was celebrated today on March 14th (3/14/15) around the world in honour of mathematician William Jones from Llanfechell, Anglesey who, in 1706, was the first person to use the Greek letter as the symbol to represent the constant of the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, approximately 3.14159. A much more pleasant morning with pressure 1035 mb rising with highs 1045 Norway and 1032 sea area FitzRoy. Hardly a cloud in the sky, except a line of low clouds over the mountains. There had been a frost on the grass (-1.8C) early. There was a moderate E'ly breeze and moderately hazy, moderate visibility, then turning cloudier by 1000 GMT. The day kept bright with sunny spells and was dry! The sky was overcast again by evening. [Max 7.6 Min 1.2] Kinlochewe 12.0C Aviemore min -4.6C; Kinloss 10.7h.

A cloudy night and still overcast at 0900 GMT on the 15th. It was dry, even the grass. The temperature was 4.9C (dewpoint 2.7C RH 86%) and the day dull and cool with a few brighter spells. [Max 7.7C Min 1.5C] Aviemore 13.5C Aboyne min -7.5C; Kenley 2.6 mm; Kinloss 10.7h. The dull weather continued on the 16th, overcast and grey. Very hazy the visibility moderate. The cloud was thick enough for some very fine, non wetting drizzle at times in the afternoon. Sunless. [Max 6.3C Min 3.6C] Santon Downham 10.4C; Benson 9.4 mm; Tiree 4.5h. The 17th began fairly bright with 7 oktas cloud cover. Visibility was very poor and the day kept mostly cloudy with a few spots of rain here although conditions were clearer in the west where Valley reported 7.9h sunshine! [Max 9.3C Min 2.9C] Herstmonceaux 14.1C; East Malling 12.6 mm; Stornoway 8.8h. In contrast the 18th began fine and sunny after heavy overnight dew and frost on the grass (min -3.7C) . Visibility was very poor in moderate smoke haze. Some cumulus cloud formation at first, then cloud dispersing to give hazy sunshine in the afternoon and evening. Brightest day so far with 574 watts m -2 recorded at noon, with total global radiation of 13.45 MJ m -2 , and the temperature creeping above 10C after 5 rather cool days. [Max 10.3 Min 1.5C] Castlederg 13.7C Porthmadog 13.0C Katesbridge min -5.6C; Camborne 10.5h Valley 9.4h..

Small tortoiseshell butterfly on Chinodoxa sp.Mostly clear sky overnight the haze persisting, there was a ground frost (-3.0C) the fields looking white with frost and low mist early on the morning of the 19th. Pressure was steady on 1037 mb which was the pressure of the high over the Irish Sea that was to move away to the south-west. A mostly sunny day, poor visibility in smoke-haze, with lots of honeybees on the pink and white flowering heathers in the garden. They appear to prefer the pink and red varieties, but can be seen on the white when fully in the sun. There were several large early bumblebees as well. Also 2 or 3 butterflies including a peacock and small tortoiseshell that likes the blue flowers of glory-of-the-snow, not that there is much snow left on the mountains this year. The grass had grown and was mown for the first time this season. With rainfall of 35.9 mm [42%] this month the soil surface was drier and not so muddy. Moisture content was 58.7% dm under grass and 52.8% on the bare plot down from being fully saturated on the 8th. [Max 11.3C Min 1.5C] Stormont Castle 14.6C Porthmadog 14.1C; Lerwick 9.6 mm; Bude 10.6 h Valley 10.1h.

Partial eclipse at 0936 GMT. The 20th began fine and bright with a few clouds the orange coloured sun rising about 0620 GMT over the Carneddau Mountains. Pressure 1030 mb was falling slowly as high 1035 MB SW of Ireland. It was the day of the solar eclipse that could be viewed from the UK with totality over the Faeroes and Arctic regions including Svarlbard. Unfortunately a cold front, associated with frontal-wave low 1015 mb Norwegian Sea, introduced cloud moving SE across northern Britain spoiling clear views and observations of many including at this station, but fine clear views were seen in several places in South and west Wales, and Scotland. At 08 GMT it was sunny with 1 okta cloud cover this increasing to 3 by 0830 GMT and 5 by 0900 GMT when first contact had been made. The temperature inside a Stevenson screen at 0900 GMT was 7.5C (81% RH) and this fell 0.6C to 6.9C (87% RH) at 0945 GMT before rising again. Gorwel Heights saw a 1.9C fall in temperature from 9.8C at 0900 GMT to 7.9C at 0940-50 GMT the RH rising from 71% to 83%, and the AWS at Gorddinog saw a 0.5C fall in temperature. The largest differences seen in Llansadwrn due to the partial eclipse and cloud formation were with unshielded thermometers: a TinyTag instrument exposed 1.2 m above ground fell 2.9C from 9.6C at 0836 GMT to 6.7C at 0936 GMT, while a standard thermometer 5 cm above grass fell 3.2C from 10.0C at 0900 GMT to 6.8C at 0945 GMT before rising again. By 0930 GMT the sky was mostly cloudy although the sun, with partial eclipse, could still be seen. At 1000 GMT the sky was overcast and by noon there was slight drizzle turning to drizzle and light rain in the afternoon, turning drier later. [Max 8.9C Min 3.1C] Pershore 15.5C; Resallach 12.8 mm; At Athan 9.3h.

The 21st began with a clearing sky so it was sunny although the NNE'ly breeze felt chilly in a temperature of 6.4C (87% RH), up from a minimum of 3.6C in the night, rising to 10.0C by afternoon. A dry day, hardly any rain anywhere in UK. Sunny! The sunniest day of the month global solar radiation reaching 14.44 MJ m -2 and RAF Valley reporting 11.5 h bright sunshine. Plymouth 14.5C Porthmadog 14.3C; Houghton Hall 1.2 mm; Glasgow & Valley 11.5h. Even less cloud on the morning of the 22nd, just 2 oktas at 0900 GMT. A ground frost -3.4C early whiteness had long disappeared, and air minimum of 0.6C had risen to 5.8C and went on to 10.5C at 1321 GMT. Sunny with very good visibility, just snow patches were left on the mountaintops. St Helen's Bay 14.8C Bala 11.6C; Lerwick 16.8 mm; Morecambe 11.2h, Valley 10.7h...

On the 23rd pressure was steady on 1016 mb with low 981 mb over the Norwegian Sea with associated cold front over Anglesey. Atlantic-high 1034 mb was over W FitzRoy. A dull morning, but slowly brightened and cleared up fine by afternoon with a sunny evening. Sunniest and warmest in the north today. [Max 11.0C Min 3.9C] Durham 12.7C; Writtle -4.2C; Stornoway 8.9h. Early on the morning of the 24th there was shallow fog over frost covered fields (grass minimum -4.1C), but this had all disappeared by 0900 GMT. The air minimum temperature was down to 0.1C, lowest of the month. There were cumuli clouds to the N on a showery trough and a few spots of rain came along. Pressure was 1012 mb with low 1003 mb over Faeroes. We had a shower of snow pellets at 0950 GMT and fresh light snow was seen on the Carneddau Mountains as low as 2000 ft, then some sunny spells during the day between rather dark cumuli from time to time. We caught another heavier shower of small hail (wet snow pellets) at 1802 GMT this falling at a rate up to 14.4 mm/h, with a little more snow on the mountains. [Max 9.8C Min 0.1C Pptn 1.9 mm] Boscombe Down 11.0C; Topcliffe -5.3C Bala -2.6C; Kinloss 8.9h Valley 3.9h.

Dates of arrival of the chiffchaff in the garden in Llansadwrn 1998-2015.  With remarkable timing a chiffchaff was heard for the first time this spring at 0850 GMT on the 25th, spot on the median arrival date. Records since 1999 (absent or very sporadic before 1998) give a latest arrival date of date of 12 April 2001 and earliest date 19 March 2012. Pressure was 1014 mb with low 984 mb over the Denmark Strait. The temperature was 6.2C (dewpoint 3.6C RH 83%) and there were bright spells and glimpses of sunshine through the day as the bird, singing from time to time, moved around the woodland surrounding the garden. Frontal cloud and band of rain were to the W and encroached during the evening with slight rain from 2100 GMT. [Max 10.9C Min 2.5C Grass -0.5C Pptn 3.2 mm] Plymouth 12.1C; Braemar -5.2C Sennybridge -3.8C; Whitechurch 13.4 mm; Morecambe 11.0h.

Dark pink Hellebore purpurea flowers in the garden.A fine and bright morning on the 26th with 5 oktas of cumulus clouds and moderate visibility. Pressure 1002 mb was rising quickly. Some hazy sunshine at first then glimpses of clear sunshine becoming lengthier in the afternoon. [Max 11.5 Min 3.0C Pptn trace] Shoreham 14.8C, Santon Downham min -3.0C; Machrihanish 24.2 mm, Capel Curig 20.4 mm; Camborne 10.4h Valley 8.8h. Fine and bright again on the 27th after a cool night and ground frosts (minimum 3.5C) with cirrus and cumuli the day was sunny at times. [Max 10.9C Min 1.0C Pptn 4.3 mm] Giant's Causeway 14.3C, Katesbridge min -3.1C; Baltasound 5.2 mm; Leuchars 9.5h Valley [7.0h]. With a low 982 mb over the Western Isles and fronts over Ireland on the 28th pressure1005 mb here was falling. There was rain after midnight and at 0900 GMT under leaden sky rain was moderate to heavy in a strong SW'ly wind. It was very dull with very poor visibility and unpleasant. With the soil having high moisture levels at present there were puddles of water and pools on some fields. At Gorwel Heights the temperature at 1218 GMT reached 13.8C compared with the 10.9C here at 1540 GMT when bright for a while. Coningsby 16.3C; Rochdale 26.2 mm [Shap 30.4 mm Capel Curig 23.0 mm]; Leeming 5.1h. Much the same on the 29th at 0900 GMT with overcast sky, heavy rain and moderate fog. Cloud was thick and it was very dull indeed before the rain eased at 0945 GMT then brighter. Rainfall 10.3 mm 24-h to 0900 GMT, standing water around and the pool of water on the old cricket field was larger. There was some rain at times during the day that occasionally was bright. [Max 9.9C Min 6.1C] Camb. Niab 14.4C; Liscombe 21.0 mm Capel Curig 19.0 mm; Lerwick 7.0h Valley 2.8h. Overcast again on the 30th, but the cloud was moderately high just touching the mountaintops at times. A light to moderate SW'ly breeze and kept fine, but dull through the morning. With thickening and lowering cloud drizzle came along at 1230 GMT and the wind strengthened in the afternoon with light to moderate rain, turning heavy at times mid-afternoon 5.4 mm/h at 1732 GMT. Pressure fell to 992 mb at 2148 GMT. The road at the weather station was awash with muddy water during the afternoon. Sunless day. [Max 10.0C Min 2.6C 13.4 mm] Rhyl 13.5C; Tyndrum 30.0 mm Capel Curig 29.8 mm; Aberdeen 7.9h.

Dates of flowering of blackthorn in Llansadwrn 1996-2014. White flowers of blackthorn were seen the hedgerow on the Llansadwrn Road and on the slip-road on to along the A55 near Llanfairpwll on the 30th, but had been spotted earlier on the on 25th in Bangor (my records refer to Llansadwrn flowering dates). The earliest flowering date in my records (graphic left) is the 27 February 2007 and the latest 16th April 2010. The median flowering date is the 22 March, so it's 8 days later this year and 13 days later than last year (2014).

The Menai Strait at Beaumaris on a fine morning.

Pressure 994 mb was steady at midnight on the 31st and by morning was 1008 mb and rising. Fine and bright with clearing sky at 0900 GMT and a moderate W'ly breeze the temperature was 7.0C (dewpoint 3.2C 77% RH), very muddy undefoot on grass. Sunny, but breezy in the afternoon, with a 30 mph speed restriction on the Britannia Bridge, and a couple of showers that included small hail. The wind moderated in the night. {Max 10.3C Min 5.5C] Shoreham 14.5C; Tyndrum 28.0 mm Lake Vyrnwy 13.0 mm; Boulmer 10.8h.

The month ended with a precipitation total of 74.7 mm (107%) & [88%] of averages, lowest since 2013 ranking 34th largest since 1929. The mean temperature 6.4C (-0.5) & [-0.6] of averages was lowest since 2013 ranking 12th since 1979. Sunny at Valley the estimated sunshine (148h) was 9th sunniest in March on the Anglesey record since 1931.

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April 2015

April 1 - our harbinger of spring the chiffchaff was singing strongly, but the weather was not very spring like on this mostly cloudy morning. Fine early there were spots of rain at 0900 GMT with more showers in the vicinity and mainland. A cool 5.5C. Pressure was 1024 mb with complex low 981 mb over the Norwegian Basin and a detached frontal-wave over NE Scotland. To the W was a warm front associated with low 944 mb S Greenland while pressure was high 1038 mb off Cap Finisterre. There was more rain in the afternoon and the wind strengthened during the evening. [Pptn 12.0 mm, largest fall of the month] Heathrow 12.3C; Resallach 16.6 mm; Morpeth 7.4h.

The Menai Strait at Beaumaris on a fine morning.

Cold enough on mountain summits for a little snow fall on the morning of the 2nd with a sprinkling seen on the NE-facing side of Carnedd Llewelyn just covering the last remaining snow patch on this flank. Overcast with moderately high altostratus. The sun broke through briefly, with the temperature struggling to 8.4C at 1252 GMT, before spots of rain mid-afternoon turned light to moderate later on with the temperature rising to 8.7C at 2121 GMT. [Pptn 3.7 mm] Scilly 13.0C, Rhyl 11.0 mm; Leconfield 10.8h, Valley 0.1h. On the 3rd a complex slow-moving frontal system with triple point over Cardigan Bay brought another dull day. The Deep Cut on Carnedd Llewelyn was full of snow.The temperature at 0900 GMT was 9.1C and 99% relative humidity in fine drizzle. At Gorwel Heights at 0149 GMT the temperature was 11.0C. Dull, with very slight rain or drizzle (of little measured volume just 0.2 mm) until late afternoon when the sky started to clear. Gravesend 14.5C, Scolton CP 21.2 mm; Lerwick 2.3h Valley 1.0h. After a mild night the morning of the 4th brought a clearing sky and sunshine over Anglesey (sunniest) with cloud persisting longer over Snowdonia before dispersing. Taking advantage of a fine weather window Gordon Perkins was able to visit The Deep Cut snow patch on Carnedd Llewelyn and took the fine photograph on the left. Pressure 1025 mb was rising with high 1029 mb off SW Ireland drifting slowly NE towards Britain. The temperature rose to 13.0C around 1440 GMT. Killowen 16.9C, Porthmadog 16.7C; Loch Glascarnoch 6.2 mm; Valley 9.1h. On the 5th sea fog had moved in and the sky was obscured. At 05 GMT the fog was thick (100 m) and by 09 GMT visibility had improved a little to fog (200 m). The fog was wet and persisted all morning eventually clearing for a while in the afternoon. It was sunny and warm for a while (Stevenson screen 14.0C) before the sea fog encroached again late afternoon and persisted in the evening and into the night. Sunny and warm in Scotland and NE England. Aboyne 20.7C Porthmadog 17.3C; Stornoway 12.6h Bala 8.5h.

Sea fog in the Menai Strait photographed by David Lee in Llanfairfechan.

With a bright Moon (full on the 4th) in the fog the grassy fields were shining eerily white with frost. The air temperature had fallen to 1.1C and the grass minimum had been down to -2.5C, but any remaining traces of frost had disappeared by 0900 GMT on the 6th with grass very wet with heavy dew. Clouds were developing and the morning cloudy for a while before dispersal brought warm sunshine in the afternoon, and a temperature of 15.5C, bringing out honeybees to join the all-weather large early bumblebees. It was a nice evening. Fog persisted all day in parts of the Menai Strait at Llanfairfechan (photo courtesy of David Lee) and Port Dinorwic (Y Felenheli) obscuring the usual views of Anglesey where it remained sunny. Usk 19.9C Braemar -3.0C; Lerwick 1.2 mm; Nottingham 12.4h Valley 12.3h. With some cloud developed overnight the air temperature did not fall below 5.5C and to 1.6C on the grass where there was moderate dew. The morning of the 7th had bright hazy sunshine (slight haze) good to very good visibility and a temperature of 11.4C (dewpoint 7.5C 77% RH). Fog again persisted in places including the Menai Strait at Port Dinorwic Fine and sunny afternoon in Llansadwrn, warm the temperature rising to 17.6C. Plenty of bees around, now the early bumblebee Bombus pretorum, buff-tailed Bombus terrestris and Carder Bombus pascuorum along with honeybees, and peacock and small tortoiseshell butterflies were in the garden. The primroses and coloured primula hybrids are in full flower now and these are visited by the bees and butterflies as well as the massed Ericas on rockery banks. The humming, when it is quiet when traffic stops, is something to be appreciated on this warm sunny day. Usk 19.3C; Santon Downham -2.7C; Kinbrace 6.4 mm; Aberporth 12.3h. A fine bright morning on the 8th with cloud although mostly high increased during the warm morning. At 0900 GMT the temperature was 14.4C and went on to reach 17.6C by noon. Visibility was very good at first, haze (poor air quality and dust) increased in the afternoon. Northolt 19.5C Porthmadog 18.7C, Tyndrum min -3.5C; Camborne 12.3h. By the 9th cloud had decreased and with just a few over the Snowdonia Mountains the day was sunny. Visibility was poor with moderate haze the result of poor air quality and Saharan dust. Pressure was 1027 mb in a ridge of high-pressure from high 1035 mb over E Europe. Waiting in the wings were fronts associated with low 995 mb S Iceland. There was a light SSW'ly breeze and the temperature rose to 17.9C in the afternoon. Fyviie Castle 20.6C Eskdalemuir min -2.1C; Manston 0.2 mm; Aberdeen 12.6h Valley 12.3h. Fine and sunny again on the 10th after a mild night with no frost. Pressure 1015 mb was falling quickly with deepening complex low 982 mb S Iceland and tightening isobars to the north-west. After being calm a good part of the night winds were light (E - S) at first, but strengthened later. The temperature at 0900 GMT was 13.7C rising to 20.1C at 1300 GMT (Gordinnog 20.2C and Gorwel Heights 20.3C) highest of the year so far and breaking the 20C threshold for the first time! Visibility started good in the morning, but deteriorated to poor as a result of poor air quality and Saharan dust. Then turning cooler in a freshening wind in mid-afternoon. St James Park 21.9C Trawsgoed & Gorwel Heights 20.3C; Katesbridge min -3.5C; Lerwick 11.4h. Overnight frontal systems, associated with low 966 mb over SE Iceland, brought light precipitation in from the W, it was cold enough on the mountains to fall as snow with light covering at 2500 ft and sprinklings as low as 2000 ft on the Carneddau. After a pressure low of 1006 mb at 0255 GMT on the 11th pressure 1015 mb was rising quickly. A almost clear sky earlier, with fronts to the E, was turning cloudier at 0900 GMT with cumuli being blown along on a moderate to fresh W'ly breeze. In complete contrast to yesterday a warm hat and mittens were deployed for the obs, such are the vagaries of the British weather. Overnight minimum 6.2C and the maximum today - 10.1C less than yesterday! A breezy afternoon and strengthening in the evening. Langdon Bay 14.8C; Dunstaffnage 18.4 mm; St Athan 11.5h.

The first bluebells of the season had opened in the wood.Dates of flowering of bluebell in the wood in Llansadwrn 1996-2015. Several bluebells were seen in the wood on the 12th, 8-days later than last year (2014) and 4-days later than the median date of flowering (graphic right). It was a blustery day with gale to strong gale force winds around coasts and over high ground. High gusts experienced locally early on (around 0756 GMT) were 56 mph in Llandegfan and 50 mph at Gorddinog. Valley reported mean wind speeds of 41 and 47 mph between 08 and 09 GMT. There was very rough water in the morning on Llyn Tegid (Bala) and coasts including at Rhosneiger. Pressure had fallen quickly to 1015 mb and the temperature was 9.5C (dewpoint 6.5C) rising at first to 10.5C then dropped to 5.2C by 1528 GMT. Overcast with moderate to heavy rain before noon on the cold front with bursts of very heavy rain (Gorwel Heights 57 mm/h at 1135 GMT) then rapidly moderating wind speeds as the front passed over. Fresh snow fell on m oun tains in the afternoon.Rain at low levels, but snow at 2000 ft on the mountains, continued until 1600 GMT when the weather brightened in a clear slot and the sun came out. A clear sky in the evening resulted in temperatures falling further and a ground frost. [Pptn 8.2 mm]. Heathrow 18.3C; Shap 28.0 mm Capel Curig 12.4 mm, Charlwood 11.5h. Overnight air minimum 1.8C and a ground frost -3.2C, but no sign of any frost on the grass on the 13th at 0900 GMT. It was 8.3C in the screen and there were several cluster flies taking refuge. Hundreds overwinter in the attic of the house along with the bats. After a clear night cloud had encroached from the SW on a pivoting front, warm in the NW and cold over N France. Pressure was steady on 1029 mb, but was expected to fall later as the ridge associated with high 1032 mb France/ N Italy drifted over the N Sea. Very good and clear visibility and a light SW'ly breeze, after a bright spell around noon the cloud thickened and there was a little rain [max 12.1C at 1509 GMT] before brightening again. Breezy into the evening and night. Cardiff 19.1C Katesbridge min -3.4C Bala -2.1C; Achnagart 19.4 mm.

On the morning of the 14th the slight covering of snow on the mountains had disappeared leaving a few snow patches high on Snowdon and Carnedd Llewelyn. Mostly cloudy again, but moderately high and there was good, but hazy visibility. The afternoon cleared up and turned sunny with a maximum of 13.0C at 1313 GMT. At Gorwel Heights a Föhn-enhanced 17.8C with RH down to 32% was recorded and at Gorddinog screen 17.3C and AWS 30% RH. It was very wet in NW Scotland. Shoeburyness 22.8C Usk 19.7C; Achnargart 64.6C; Wattisham 13.1h. Much the same on the 15th with cloud thickening enough for intermittent fine drizzle early and in the morning, and at times to produce slight rain in the afternoon. Later the rain ceased and the sky began to clear in the evening. [Max 9.5C Min 7.2C Pptn 0.5 mm] Summer in the south-east today Frittenden 25.1C Cardiff 20.6C Capel Curig 9.3C; Shoreham min 1.9C; Achnagart 15.4 mm Mona 0.6 mm. In contrast there was hardly a cloud in the sky on the morning of the 16th, mostly well above the mountains and predominately cirrus and cirrostratus elsewhere. Sunny. Visibility was excellent in clean air the murk having moved away. Pressure was 1018 mb with high 1018 mb charted over S Scotland. Fronts were to the S of here over the Channel. The temperature at 0900 GMT was 9.3C (69% RH), up from the overnight minimum of 4.7C and a grass minimum of 0.7C, and this rose to a dizzy 12.3C just after 13 GMT. A few clouds developed later on these disappearing before evening. We have 2 chiffchaffs singing, one in the wood and the other in the garden; a female orangetip butterfly flew by. Planted 3 rows of Arran Pilot potatoes. Hurn 22.1C Cardiff 18.0C; Stornoway 3.0 mm; Morpeth 12.9h Bala 10.6h. Cloud began to encroach soon after dawn on the 17th and by 0900 GMT the sky was mostly cloud covered. Dull with poor visibility due to aerosol smoke and dust. I heard a blackcap singing for the first time here this morning. The sun occasionally broke through with some hazy sunshine and there was a brief clear sunny slot around 1115 GMT when the temperature 17.0C felt very pleasant indeed, beating Gorwel Height's 14.4C on this occasion. It did not last and the afternoon kept mostly cloudy, breezy and dry; Porthmadog with 17.4C was the warmest place today. Porthmadog 17.4C Altnaharra -3.2C; Scilly 1.4 mm; Stornoway 13.5h.

A rare cloudless morning on the 18th with no significant cloud seen all day. Pressure was steady on 1030 mb; the frontal cloud of yesterday had moved S and was over Brittany and France to N of Italy. There was a light to moderate E'ly breeze, the temperature rise was from a minimum of 3.8C to 13.3C, and enhanced the drying of the garden plot. Under grass the soil moisture yesterday was 54% dm and on the bare met plot down to 36%. Usually one of the driest months rainfall this April to date has been 28.7 mm [(45%)] of average. Achnagart 17.6C Braemar min -4.3C; Scilly 0.6 mm; Tiree 13.7h Valley 13.2h. The 19th began with a little mostly high cloud and some cumulus over the mountains. Visibility was very good and there was the cool ENE'ly breeze. Overnight the air minimum was down to 3.0C and on the grass 0.3C with heavy dew formed. The damson tree is coming into flower but apple flowers have not yet appeared. Ash trees are flowering and flowers on horsechestnut are about to open. Buds on beech are still tight, some sycamore have leaves. The morning turned cloudy as a patch of remnant frontal cloud moved across from the E and did not clear until late afternoon. The maximum today 11.1C and no rain. Achnagart 16.2C Kinbrace min -4.4C Bala -3.1C; Bingley 1.6 mm; Stornoway 13.9C Valley 10.6h.

The dry weather had led to the inevitable list of wild fires on moors and in woodland throughout Wales. Many fires have been reported in both South and North Wales in recent days. Many are set deliberately, few are accidental, while others are controlled burning that get out of hand. Controlled burning is allowed only between October and 31 March. In North Wales large fires have been on the Moelwyns and woodland at Nant Gwynant. There was also a fire on Garreg Fawr above Llanfairfechan and Caergeiliog on Anglesey, the latter a controlled burn that reportedly got out of hand.


Another sunny day on the 20th with just a little cloud seen at 0900 GMT. A touch of ground frost overnight (-0.8C) and heavy dew on the grass, but the air minimum went no lower than 3.5C. A lighter breeze at first, but strengthened in the afternoon. Maximum temperature 14.5C. Otterbourne 20.2C Aviemore min -3.5C; Castlederg 3.0 mm; Morecambe 13.5h. The 21st was a sunny day, with hardly a cloud to be seen, and very good visibility. The temperature rising from an overnight minimum of 5.2C reached 15.3C in the afternoon. A male orangetip butterfly was seen in the garden along with several holly blues and a blackcap was singing in a nearby wild cherry tree just coming in to bloom here. Oak trees in the Conwy Valley have leaves opened, ash are still at the flowering stage. Early types of beech have bright light green leaves and some early sycamore are in leaf as well. Snow patches were persisting on Garnedd Ugain on Snowdon, Carnedd Llewelyn including the 'deep cut' and on Glyder Fawr at Cwm Idwal. Porthmadog 21.3C Aviemore min -3.6C; Morpeth CP 13.8h Valley 13.5h. A warmer day on the 22nd in sunshine at 0900 GMT it was 12.6C and rose to 16.7C. Drumadrochit 21.2C Porthmadog 20.3C Katesbridge min -2.1C; Morecambe 13.8h Valley 13.3h. A fine and sunny morning on the 23rd, and warm, the temperature at 0900 GMT 14.2C promised a high temperature later on, but it was not to be as a NNE'ly breeze picked up and the maximum was 17.8C. On the west coast at Aberffraw the breeze was W'ly off the sea and a little cooler (16.5C). The warmest places today were in NE England. Chillingham Barns, Northumberland 20.9C Long Benton, Newcastle 20.5C, Katesbridge min -1.3C; Resallach 2.2 mm; Glasgow 13.6C Hawarden 12.5h.

Aberffraw Bay, Anglesey. A fine beach & botanically outstanding dunes

Emperor moth at Tywyn Aberffraw. Sea pink and rock lichens at Aberffraw Bay. On the 23rd a large male Emperor moth (left) having 4 peacock-like eyespots was seen at Tywyn Aberffraw. The male has a 5-6 cm wingspan, the female, not seen, has an even larger wingspan of up to 10 cm. The middle slack (below) was looking greener after the winter. Plants seen in flower included the creeping (dwarf) willow Dwarf creeping willow in flower on Aberffraw Dunes. which now dominates some large areas; the pretty heath violet Heath violet on Tywyn Aberffraw. ; dune pansy Dune pansy at Tywyn Aberffraw. and Lady's smock Lady's smock flowering on Aberffraw dunes. . On the beach the first flower of thrift (sea-pink) were appearing on lichen encrusted rocks (right) together with the halophytic Danish early or ivy-leaved scurvy grass Halophytic early scurvy grass atTraeth Aberffraw. and here in close-up Ivy leaved scurvy grass Cochlearia danica. that, in recent years, can be seen along the sides of the A55, A5025 and other roads that have been treated with salt during the winter months. The line of dunes facing the sea were intact after winter storms (above) and on the strandline hundreds of small seedlings of strand plants had already germinated.

The middle slack at Twyn Aberffraw.

The 24th began overcast and dull and very murky with poor visibility. Pressure 1011 mb was falling with Atlantic-low 991 mb W of FitzRoy and associated occluded front over the Celtic Sea responsible for the cloudy day. It was indeed a miserable sunless day with fine drizzle at times in the morning turning to drizzle and spells of light rain in the afternoon. The garden could do with some rain the bare plot soil now showing a cracked surface, but the volume collected was only 1.1 mm. Holbeach 20.1C Katesbridge min -2.1C; Kirkwall 6.6 mm Capel Curig 4.4 mm; Morpeth 10.1h Hawarden 4.6h. And, similarly cloudy on the 25th with poor misty visibility, a moderate SW'ly wind and recent light rain. Pressure was 1002 mb with low 993 mb S Norwegian Sea and a cold front over the Isle of Man. The temperature rose to 11.0C at 1031 GMT then the cold front arrived and, with a burst of moderate rain and small hail (3.6 mm/h) the temperature began to fall rapidly at first then more slowly through the day to 3.5C at 1600 GMT (a 7.5C fall). The fall in temperature at Gorddinog was more dramatic, the AWS at 1038 GMT indicated 12.4C and fell to 3.4C by 1600 GMT (a 9.0C fall). During the afternoon rain was sleety, no more hail was recorded. At the end of the afternoon rain had ceased, it was a little brighter and after a small rise in temperature continued to fall overnight to 2.5C and as the sky cleared a ground frost. Santon Downham 19.0C Baltasound min -2.4C; Capel Curig 17.0 mm; Tiree 10.9h. A fine sunny morning on the 26th after clear sky in the night with small cumuli developed on a NE'ly breeze and some cirrus and high contrails. There was a chill in the air this morning at 7.6C and slight snow cover on the N-facing slopes of the Carneddau and Snowdon down to the railway line at 2500 ft. A sunny day. There was a light shower of rain at 2020 GMT. Pershore 14.8C Katesbridge min -5.9C; Morecambe 14.1h. A clear starlit night led to a white ground frost on the morning of the 27th with the air minimum down to -0.1C and grass minimum down to -4.7C, both lowest of the month. By 0900 GMT the frost had disappeared an the sky was cloudier as cumuli developed. There was a moderate SW'ly breeze and there were one or two light showers of rain off the Irish Sea during the day. Hampton WW 13.9C; Katesbridge min -8.0C; Dunstaffnage 10.2 mm; Leeming 11.8h Valley 10.5h.

The 28th had a wintry feel about it with ice precipitation showers on the mountaintops leaving scatterings as low as 2500 ft. There had been a ground frost of -2.0C. At 0900 GMT pressure 1015 mb was rising and the temperature rising from a minimum of 1.8C was 7.5C. There were some towering cumuli earlier and there were some sunny spells later with the temperature rising to 10.0C around noon. Writtle 14.2C Kinbrace min -4.7C; Spadeadam 16.0 mm; Wattisham 12.7h Valley 8.9h. Showers with small hail just after midnight on the 29th (gusty wind and 25.8 mm/h precipitation at 0137 GMT) and an overnight minimum of 3.4C with a touch of ground frost by morning (-0.2C). A chilly morning 5.9C, with a moderate WSW'ly breeze, and a maximum of 10.4C during the afternoon. Pershore 14.3C Altnaharra -1.8C; Spadeadam 22.2 mm Sennybridge 12.4 mm; Aberporth 11.6h Valley 11.1h. A bright morning on the 30th with a light to moderate N'ly breeze. Pressure 1011 mb was rising with low 1004 mb over the North Sea. Very good clear visibility at first with hazy sunshine and halo seen in a veil of cirrostratus cloud at 0900 GMT. Sunshine in the afternoon the temperature rising to 11.7C at 1420 GMT in Llansadwrn and 9.9C at Gorwel Heights. St James Park 16.1C; Shap Fell 10.4 mm; Tiree 14.6h.

The month ended with a mean temperature of 8.9C lowest since 2013 (-0.4) & [0.0] of averages. A fairly dry month with precipitation of 41.7 mm, highest since 2013 (67%) & [66%] of average. It was the sunniest April on record at RAF Valley.


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May 2015

May 1 - and a bright morning with a little weak sunshine at first then some clear sunny spells developing later. Pressure was steady on 1012 mb in a transient ridge from the N with high 1017 mb over the Faeroes. Lows 990 mb and 997 mb were off SW Ireland and there were complex fronts over the SW Approaches and N France. Clematis alpina in flower in the garden.A warm day in Porthmadog with 14.6C while here in a light to moderate E'ly breeze 11.1C was the best on offer. Porthmadog 14.6C Tulloch Bridge min -5.6C Bala -0.4C; Dalwhinnie 6.6 mm; Tiree 14.6h Valley 9.8h. A wet and windy day on the 2nd with pressure 1008 mb falling and the temperature 5.4C at 0900 GMT very reluctant to rise. Moderate to heavy rain 4.8 mm/h at 0900 GMT did not bode well for our 3-day Annual Sale of Plants in aid of the NSPCC. At noon the temperature was 6.5C with continuous light to moderate rain. In Llanfairfechan conditions were atrocious with strong gusts of 38 mph SE'ly wind off the mountains precipitation (wintry) was 11.4 mm/h. In the 24-h 2100 - 2100 GMT precipitation was 38.8 mm at Gorwel Heights [29.0 mm]. Here precipitation was [18.7 mm]. Today's maximum was 9.7C at 2106 GMT. Heathrow 15.7C; Killowen 40.0 mm, Gorwel Heights 38.8 mm; Stornoway 10.8h Valley nil. Strong winds in the night gusting 41 mph at Gorwel Heights at 0129 GMT and 48 mpg at Gorddinog at 0045 GMT. Not a lot better on the morning of the 3rd, overcast skies having had recent rain, but it was a little warmer at 11.3C at 0900 GMT. Pressure was 991 mb with low 981 mb lying to the NW S of Iceland and a complex set of fronts over the Irish Sea. The jetstream was nicely set up to deliver more of the same! Fog and fine continuous drizzle from 1000 GMT turning a little drier before more slight rain set in. One or two glimpses of sunshine and showers later. [Max 13.1C Pptn 3.3 mm]. St James Park 21.5C Hawarden 17.8C; Tyndrum 54.2 mm Cardiff 35.2 mm; Hawarden 5.2h. A bright morning on the 4th with 5 oktas of cumulus clouds increasing towards 0900 GMT. Low 978 mb was S of Iceland and W of Rockall and we were temporarily between frontal systems. A moderate SW'ly breeze and a temperature of 11.7C rising to 14.0C soon after noon. The afternoon turned cloudier. St James Park 20.3C; Harris Quidnish 12.8 mm; Aberdeen 9.8h. The 5th began wet and windy, the SW'ly force 5/6 and there was a 30 mph speed restriction on the Britannia Bridge. A gust of 50 mph was recorded in nearby Llandegfan at 0905 GMT. Pressure was 984 mb with a frontal-wave low over Anglesey with complex frontal systems in the vicinity. Continuing windy there were some sunny spells later with very heavy showers during the afternoon near the mountains with 136 mm/h recorded at Gorddinog at 1540 GMT. [Max 12.1C Pptn 11.7 mm] Weyborne 18.3C; [Shap 19.8 mm Capel Curig 17.0 mm]; Herstmonceux 8.5h Valley 5.3h.

Overnight very windy the wind at times near gale-force and by the morning of the 6th the ground was littered with small twigs and shredded new leaves and flowers of horse chestnut and some of the last remaining beech mast. It was raining. Pressure had risen a little to 992 mb with the low 984 mb over the North Channel and an occluded front placed over Wales. Pressure was high 1021 mb over Spain. . The day continued blustery with some bright spells and showers, the wind did moderate in the afternoon and veered more W'ly; cool for the time of year the maximum just 10.9C, lowest of the month and lowest on this day in May for over 30-years (1982 when 9.2C was the maximum). The lowest maxima in May recorded here was 7.2C on 3 days 1 & 2 May 1979 and 1 May 1983. [Pptn 5.6 mm]. Weyborne 15.3C; [Capel Curig 24.2 mm]; Camborne 7.7h Valley 1.1h. The wind continued to moderate overnight and the morning of the 7th was calm. Some breaks in the cloud in the W moved across and the morning slowly brightened with some slight showers. The afternoon was dry and the evening fine and dry. Garlic mustard is prominent at present along roadsides and hedgerows. It has been increasing in recent years and has made it way along the Llansadwrn road to the weather station; it is now in the garden as well. [Max 12.5C Pptn 0.3 mm] St James Park 19.1C; Cromer 11.0 mm; Leeming 11.6h Valley 8.1h. The 8th promised a better day starting bright after overnight minima of 5.0C and 0.9C on the grass. Visibility was very good and clear at first with the sky turning cloudier through the morning. Pressure was 1012 mb, but frontal cloud to the SW encroached in the afternoon bringing rain that continued on overnight resulting in standing water and rivulet of runoff from adjacent field across the garden. Rainfall 24-h from 09 GMT was 25.1 mm over 16 hours duration, largest of the month. St James Park 18.4 mm Braemar min -5.3C; [Capel Curig 35.6 mm Llansadwrn 25.1 mm Mona 23.8 mm Rhyl 13.2 mm]; Tiree 12.6h Valley 1.5h. A dull morning on the 9th with poor visibility, warmer overnight under cloud air minimum 7.1C and 7.0C on the grass. The low was 1002 mb North Sea off the Tyne and here 1013 mb rising. A finer afternoon with some sunshine. A few small patches of late snow could be seen hanging on around the summit of Carnedd Llewelyn. St James Park 19.3 Altnaharra min -3.8C; Kielder Castle 22.4 mm; Tiree 10.5h Valley 5.3h. Overcast with moderate S'ly breeze and slight recent rain at 0900 GMT. Pressure was 1017 mb with low 978 mb W of Ireland with frontal cloud over the UK. Pressure was high 1029 mb over Switzerland. Llanfairfechan with a Föhn-like wind had elevated temperatures 15.0C at Gorwel Heights (12.4C in Llansadwrn) rising to 15.6C at 1220 GMT. Drier spell early in the afternoon and sunny spell boosted the temperature here to 14.5C. Light rain from 2300 GMT. Santon Downham 20.4C Kinbrace -3.8C; Tyndrum 36.8 mm; Wattisham 8.4h. The temperature at Gorwel Heights at 0035 GMT was 14.0C and the rain turned moderate to heavy here on the 11th (12 mm/h at 0411 GMT and 12.5 mm was measured at 0900 GMT. By morning the sky was looking brighter and beginning to clear with sunny spells developing with more sunshine in the afternoon when the temperature rose to 14.1C. St James Park 22.7C; Cluannie Inn 26.2 mm; Kinloss 11.4h.

The former skating pond at The Far End in Bodnant Garden.

The 12th began brightly with pressure 1014 mb rising, it was a breezy day with sunny spells between cumulus clouds that sometimes looked dark and threatening, but it remained dry throughout. [Max 13.8C] Heathrow 18.2C; Achnagart 22.8 mm; Camborne 12.9h.

Fine cerise Primula candelabra growing in The Dell at Bodnant. xxx.On a first visit to the recently opened to the public The Far End at Bodnant Gardens passing on the way a fine collection of mature conifers, in The Dell were growing some colourful cerise coloured candelabra Primulae (left). The former skating pond (panorama above), situated at the Far End, was constructed alongside the river Hiraethlyn that flows through The Dell. Much silt and gravel is washed down the river from the mountains and to keep the river and waterfalls as clear of debris as possible there is a silt trap pond nearby (right). The pond certainly looked very muddy after heavy rain. Some 500 tons of silt is dredged up twice a year and used on the extensive network of paths through the garden. The clear water from the trap passes over a weir shown in this photo The weir at the silt trap pont at the Far End of Bodnant Garden. and near the bottom of The Dell the river is seen from The Waterfall bridge flowing quickly through the ravine planted with Rhododendrons that are such a grand spectacle at this time of year Clear flowing Hiraethlyn river and specactular Rhododendrons. .

Overnight the breeze had moderated and on the morning of the 13th as the sky cleared the wind was light NE'ly. Escaping any frost the overnight air minimum was 5.9C and 1.0C on the grass. The Carneddau were clear of cloud, but Crib y Ddsgyl was capped with cloud. A sunny afternoon with very good visibility. [Max 14.6C] Kew Gardens 20.5C Katesbridge min -2.0C; Resallach 2.4 mm; Odiham 14.5h. Fairly clear overnight and if up early on the 14th it was fine, but turning cloudier the sky was overcast at 0900 GMT. With low 997 mb over the Celtic Sea pressure here was 1010 mb, the temperature was 9.0C. There was an E'ly breeze that was picking up strength and it was noisy in the trees. At Gorwel Heights a gust of 48 mph had been recorded at 0218 GMT. Most of the morning was dismal, but there was some clearance in the afternoon with glimpses of sunshine. [Max 12.3 Pptn 0.6 mm] Achnagart 17.5C Keilder Castle min -0.8C; Cardiff Bute Park 36.2 mm; Stornoway 15.1h. Mountain avens - Dryas octopetala. Blue bugle growing on the rockery banks.A bright and fine morning on the 15th with a covering of cirrostratus clouds, but no halo was seen. Visibility was very good and it was warmer with 12.8C at 0900 GMT. Pressure was 1022 mb with low 975 SW Iceland and occluded fronts over Ireland. Pressure was high 1033 mb W of Iberia. Sunny at first then thicker cloud began to encroach and there was slight rain from 1425 GMT with the S'ly breeze moderating later in the afternoon. [Max 14.3C Pptn 0.5 mm] Hawarden 18.0C Aboyne min -4.3C; Dundrennan 9.0 mm; Wattisham 10.4h. A fine and bright morning on the 16th with a clearing sky and a W'ly breeze. Pressure 1025 mb was rising quickly with low 975 mb Iceland and high 1035 mb off Cap Finisterre. The weather was disturbed in the Med with a low 1010 mb over Sardinia. The day was sunny at times and although passing cumuli were sometimes dark there was no rain. [Max 14.6C rain nil] Frittenden 19.6C, Achnagart 16.6 mm; Aberporth 13.0h Valley 12.7h. With pressure steady on 1025 mb the 17th began fine, with some sunshine, and breezy with very good visibility. Pressure was high 1018 mb over the Barents Sea and 1033 mb W of Cap Finisterre. With pressure falling slowly the sky soon turning cloudier, but the day kept dry until 20 GMT in the evening. [Max 12.1C Pptn 19.4 mm] Gravesend 18.4C, Tyndrum 31.8 mm; Herstmonceux 12.2 mm. The rain turned light to moderate after midnight then moderate to heavy in the small hours including ice pellets. At 0900 GMT on the 18th rain was heavy (heaviest 13.4 mm/ h at 0918) the observer got wet in it! Rainfall 24-h to 0900 GMT was 19.4 mm falling over 13h duration. Cloud was thick, quite dark, low and visibility moderate in mist and rain and the temperature was 7.6C and 99% RH. The rain continued for a while then there were some bright spells with a little sunshine. There were frequent showers of rain from 15 GMT, some heavy with more ice pellets included, dying out by evening. [Max 12.0C Pptn 4.6 mm] Shoreham 16.2C low max Balmoral 7.5C; Capel Curig 35.0 mm; Tiree 9.0 mm. Bright, but cool on the 19th with cumulus shower clouds in the vicinity in a W'ly airflow. Pressure 1003 mb was rising with low 989 mb over S Norwegian and N North Sea off Wick. Frequent light showers that included ice pellets with a heavier one at 1414 GMT that fell up to 23 mm/ h. [Min 6.1C Max 11.5C Pptn 1.7 mm] Shoeburyness 15.2C Kinbrace low max 8.5C Braemar min -2.2C; Rostherne 24.6 mm Capel Curig 16.0 mm; Glasgow 11.0h. ViewContinuing unsettled the 20th began mostly cloudy and cool in a light NW'ly breeze. Some longer spells of sunshine developed in the afternoon and the temperature rose to 15.6C. Butterflies have been absent for a few weeks, but some new generation peacocks were seen around the garden today. Leuchers 17.3C; Wattisham 10.2 mm; St Athan 12.1h. With pressure 1026 mb rising the 21st was mostly sunny (Valley 10.0h) though still on the cool side. [Min 6.3 Max 14.1C] St James Park 20.4C; Resallach 26.4 mm; Heathrow 13.5h. A fine and bright morning on the 21st with somewhat variable amounts of cloud. Pressure 1026 mb was rising with high 1034 mb off Cap Finisterre extending a ridge towards the UK. Mostly sunny in the afternoon with Gorwel Heights having 16.3C. Planted out 3 rows of lettuce. [Max 14.1C Pptn 1.0 mm] St James Park 20.4C; Resallach 26.4 mm; Heathrow 13.5h Valley 10.0h. Back to the cloudy weather on the 22nd the sky overcast after drizzle in the night and poor to moderate visibility in mist. The sky was a little lighter later, but the day was sunless. [Max 14.1C Pptn 0.8 mm] Bridlington 21.6C; Porthmadog 8.4 mm; Aberdeen 8.4h. The 23rd began with low cloud and fog especially on the lower Snowdonia Mountain slopes. Pressure was 1027 mb with a ridge from Azores high 1037 mb. There was a lot of cloud around, but this began to disperse by late morning and the afternoon and evening turned out fine and sunny, the temperature rising to 16.6C the highest here this month, but (-6.4) of the average of the highest over the past decade; Gorwel Heights was 13.6C today. [Pptn 3.5] Hurn 21.2C; Harris Quidnish 10.8 mm; Morecambe 13.3h Valley 5.3h.


Ynys Seiriol, lighthouse and Great Orme head, Llanadudno


TheEarly purple orchid.The 24th began overcast, after some overnight rain, with a light NW'ly breeze. Cloud was low on the mountains, but visibility was good. Pressure 1020 mb was rising and soon the sky looked lighter and by afternoon it was mostly sunny especially at Penmon and on the NW coast at Valley. Found growing on the roadside near the Priory Church (left) were some fine early purple orchids seen in close up on the right and in habitat showing its blotched leaves here Early purple orchid in habitat showing blotched leaves. . There was a good number of puffins, flying to and fro Puffin Island especially the side facing red Wharf Bay, and razorbills. Flying above the island were a number of black backed gulls. [Max 16.4C Min 9.1C] Gravesend 21.5C; Dunstaffnage 11.6 mm; Valley 9.2h. Cloud had encroached overnight and the morning of the 25th was overcast with slight drizzle followed by a spell of slight rain and drizzle, accumulated amounts were small [0.3 mm]. The afternoon was drier and brightened later. Killowen 19.2C; Resallach 5.4 mm; Tiree 9.0h. It was fine, but dull on the 26th with the occasional small patch of blue sky. Visibility was very good although cloud hugged the mountaintops. Pressure 1026 mb was rising with an Atlantic-high 1038 mb W of Ireland. Cardiff 20.1C; Resallach 2.6 mm; Morecambe 11.5h St Athan 8.7h. The 27th began very fine and sunny with scattered altocumulus clouds, some mackerel and soon it was cloudier as the wind backed Sly and began to strengthen. Petals being blown off the horse chestnut trees at times looked like snow with drifts collecting on the ground in places. Rain kept away until about 1430 GMT when it started spotting not getting going until 1530 GMT when light to moderate for a while before dying out before 1700 GMT. [Max 14.3C Pptn 4.0 mm] Gravesend 21.3C; Giants Causeway 15.2 mm; Wattisham 11.2h. Sicilian chamomile growing in Llansadwrn.There were heavy showers here at 0044 GMT on the 28th (11 mm/h) and heavier at Gorwel Heights a little later (0055 GMT 29 mm/h). At 0900 GMT there were signs of the sky beginning to clear with very good visibility. It was cool in the light to moderate SW'ly breeze, 9.9C rising from an overnight minimum of 5.8C to 13.4C in the afternoon [Gorwel Heights 14.4C] when there were some sunny spells. [Pptn 8.1 mm] Frittenden 18.3C; Loch Glascarnoch 18.3 mm; Bristol 13.4h. Some heavy rain after midnight on the 29th, but by morning the sky was brighter. Pressure 1006 mb was rising with low 996 mb Norwegian Sea. A disturbance was running across North Wales from the W and this was clearing eastward. Apart from a couple of slight showers of rain the afternoon and evening was mostly sunny. [Max 13.9C Pptn 0.2 mm] Thorney Island 15.9C; Swyddffynnon 18.0 mm; Tiree 11.0h Valley 7.2h. There were a lot of well developed cumulus clouds around on the morning of the 30th with 6 oktas cover at 0900 GMT. Little change in cloud cover in the morning, but increased in the afternoon with not a lot of sunshine. The maximum temperature of 12.4C did not feel at all warm in the W'ly breeze. There was a weak ridge over the UK 1014 mm here with filling low 997 mb moving E over the Baltic. Winter clothing used in the garden today while potting up chrysanthemums, as has been most of the month. No shorts yet although I did spot a cold looking postman wearing summer issue shorts in Bangor the other day. [Pptn 7.1 mm] Heathrow 18.6C; Derrylin Cornahoule 13.2 mm; Morpeth C.P. 12.1h. The last day of spring and the month 31st was little different starting with overcast skies and slight rain. A temperature of 8.8C was not brilliant in the light W'ly breeze. Pressure 1004 mb was rising with frontal-wave low 986 mb off NW Scotland at 0900 GMT with cold fronts passing over western Britain. Brighter by 1000 GMT with sunny spells coming along in the afternoon. In the sun not too bad, a maximum of 13.4C, otherwise chilly. There was a shower of rain in the evening. [Pptn 0.5 mm] Norwich AP 17.2C; Achnagart 17.2 mm; Tiree 8.0h.

Well, the May stats say it all: Rainfall 141.3 mm was second largest since 1928 and the mean temperature 10.2C the 3rd lowest at this station since 1979. The mean maximum 13.4C was (-1.8) & [-2.5] of averages and the highest 16.6C (-6.4). Sunshine at Valley not too bad at 185.1h (92%) & [95%] of averages.


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June 2015

June 1 - and looking and feeling like May, or perhaps January. At 0900 GMT with a few spots of rain and overcast sky the temperature was 10.0C and while this did creep up a few points to 10.5C soon began falling again. At 1400 GMT it was 8.8C and 11 mm of rain had fallen. Pressure 1008 mb was falling with low 982 mb NW of Rockall a developing disturbance 986 mb was off Shannon. We were in a strong W'ly airflow and soon there was moderate with the wind strengthening with gusts of 48 mph recorded at Gorwel Heights. By afternoon the wind was gale force 8 at Valley and the Britannia Bridge was closed to high sided vehicles at 5 pm. Gorwel Heights and Gorddinog recorded 53 mph simultaneously at 1642 GMT. The temperature was still falling, rainfall was heavy at times with the 'storm' total reaching 15 mm. Pressure dropped to 993 mb at 1842 GMT and conditions worsened around 1900 GMT with the wind up to 38 mph and very heavy rain falling at a rate up to 11 mm/h. Pressure then rose to about 995 mb and bumped along around here through the night with the wind very much moderated and the temperature overall fall on the cold front was from 11.1C, the lowest maximum of the month, to 7.6C. It was reported that several trees had blown down in parts of Wales. There was a tidal surge of between 0.7m and 1 m around the coast. A 1 m surge around 2200 GMT at Liverpool brought the tide up to nearly 10 m (Courtesy of the National Oceanographic Centre), and together with the rain there was flooding in the Conwy Valley at Llanwrst and the road to Treffiw. Floodplain pastures were also flooded and animals had to be moved to higher ground. Rainfall for the 24h 09-09 GMT was 24.0 mm, largest daily rainfall of the month. Holbeach 16.8C Aboyne min -0.4C; Capel Curig 54.6 mm; Kirkwall 10.7h. The 2nd began on a quieter note, but by 0900 GMT the wind was picking up again. After the 'gardeners gale' the ground was littered with shredded leaves, flowers, petals and live twigs snapped off the trees up to 1 m long. Herbaceous borders looked a bit the worse for wear and will need more staking. Pressure was 996 mb with the low stationed over N Scotland 978 mb were conditions have been atrocious. Moderate misty visibility and very breezy again during the morning as the wind, but it wasn't raining. HSV's were again banned from the Britannia Bridge which was limited to 20 mph for other vehicles. Mostly cloudy in the morning, but cleared up bright and sunny in the afternoon although still very windy [Max 14.9C Min 7.5C Pptn 0.5 mm] Holbeach 21.4C; Liscombe 29.0 mm; Boulmer 14.6h. On the 3rd pressure 1020 mb was rising quickly and it was a bright start with a few cumulus clouds and very good visibility. Low 987 mb was over the Baltic while pressure was high 1025 mb near Cap Finisterre. By 0900 GMT the temperature was 11.2C and went on to reach 15.2C here in a mostly sunny afternoon and 17.0C at Gorwel Heights. Heathrow 20.4C; Cassley 7.6 mm; Valley 14.5h. Pressure had risen to 1025 mb on the morning of the 4th and it was a mostly sunny morning with the sky veiled with cirrus clouds. Visibility was very good, but it became very hazy later in the afternoon with Saharan dust contributing. [Max 18.9C Rain nil] Northolt 23.8C Balmoral min -1.1C; Tyndrum 5.2 mm; Wellesbourne 14.7h Valley 14.0h.

View S from islet of Cribinau.

The tidal isley of Cribinau with St. Cwyfan's Church. Sea pinks flowering on the old graveyard of St Cwyfan's Church, Cribinau. The 13th century church of St Cwyfan's, Llangwyfan, stands on Cribinau, a small tidal island off the south west coast of Anglesey, not far from Aberffraw. It was added to in the 14th and 15th centuries and was much larger than the building which exists today, outlines of former archways can be still seen in the exterior N-facing walls. By 1891 the building was a roofless ruin, but was restored in 1893-4. Maps dating from from the 17th century show the church standing on the mainland of Anglesey, but erosion by the sea of the cliffs has since separated the church on to an islet. An engraving of 1846 shows an islet reached by a causeway which is the way it is reached today. By 1889 a substantial sea wall was built around the church that today is reached, from sea level, by an iron staircase. When visited the sea pinks on the SW corner of the old grave yard were in full bloom.

Although pressure was steady on 1021 mb it was a damp start on the 5th with light rain at 0600 GMT. By 0900 GMT it was brighter with a little sunshine breaking through the cloud. The SW'ly breeze was picking up and the afternoon was sunny, but breezy. Large thunderstorms developed in London and SE England the result of very warm moist air delivered from France. [Max 14.9C Rain 0.9 mm] Frittenden 26.7C; Wainfleet 12.4 mm; Shawbury 9.6h Valley 7.4h. Strong to gale-force winds on the 6th on the mountains and SE Anglesey. A large branch fully leafed was brought down near the Stevenson Screen and the ground was littered with twigs, shredded leaves and flower petals. Pressure was 1019 mb with low 991 mb Cape Wrath. Highest gusts recorded at Capel Curig 58 mph and Llandegfan 52 mph. Sunny, but the strong wind continued. Water was very rough on Llyn Tegid, Bala with large waves reaching the shore. Soil moisture under grass determined today was 55% dm, but on the bare plot, with less organic material where evaporation is larger, it had fallen to 17.5% not far from 15.2% the permanent wilting percentage for the local soil. [Max 13.9C Rain nil] Heathrow 20.5C; Tyndrum 40.8 mm; Wittering 14.1h. A fine morning on the 7th, but cloud was already increasing at 0900 GMT. With clearer sky overnight it was cool, on the grass the minimum was 2.3C and in the air 5.4C, both lowest of the month. Pressure 1034 mb was rising with Atlantic-high 1036 mb to the west. If you were in the sun it was pleasantly warm the maximum temperature reaching 16.6C in the afternoon. St James Park 21.4C; Cluanie Inn 29.4 mm; Bude 15.1h Valley 13.5h. Another fine morning on the 8th, but keeping cool the temperature at 0900 GMT 10.9C. Cloud streets were wide spread and although there was plenty of sunshine (Valley 11.2h) the highest temperature reached was 14.5C. Bournemouth 19.9C Katesbridge min -1.0C; Durham 6.8 mm; Bude 15.0h.
Port Cwyfan and St Cwyfan's Church on islet of Cribinau.

An obliging little egret poses for the camera. Sea pinks flowering on ancient dry stone wall. Between the islet of Cribinau and Abreffraw lies Porth Cwyfan where a little egret was spotted and kindly posed for a photograph. Around the Anglesey Coastal Path near the rocky coast are 'old grass fields' and a pattern of important ancient 'dry stone walls' and 'earth banks'. These form a habitat for several maritime plant species and when visited on the 4th provided an amazing spectacle of a wall of sea pinks. The wall illustrated faces SSW, other aspects were not quite so spectacular. Some, more S facing were well past their best while others with a more N'ly aspect had yet to reach their best. A combination of aspect and closeness to the sea and salt spay seem to account for these differences. In maritime turf close to the rocky coast near Ffos y Gôg there was a profusion of spring squils as well as short sea pinks Spring squill & sea pink in maritime turf. .

The 9th was very fine, a lovely morning, and a little warmer at 0900 GMT it was 13.3C. Visibility was very good and clear after some early fog patches in low lying areas. Sunny! The day's maximum temperature of 16.5C was still 1.4C below the average for June and way off the highest of 24.2C. Edinburgh 19.3C Katesbridge min -1.9C; Houghton Hall 1.8 mm; Valley 15.7h. Much of the same on the 10th, hardly a cloud in the sky and with pressure steady on 1032 mb, in the high 1035 mb over the UK, the fine weather was set to continue. The temperature crept up today reaching 17.2C (Valley 17.5C). Leuchars 23.1C Porthmadog 20.7C Longbenton 20.4C; Katesbridge min -0.4C; Lerwick 1.6 mm; Morecambe 16.2h. Calm overnight with a minimum of 8.3C and very fine and sunny again on the 11th with light N or NE'ly breeze developing. Pressure was falling steadily as a thundery low developed over Biscay 1011 mb with fronts over the Channel and N France encroaching S England. Soon warming up in the sunshine it was 15.2C and went on to reach 20.5C in the afternoon. At Gorwel Heights and Gorddinog the maxima were 22.1C. Yeovilton 25.3C Hawarden 22.7C Ravensworth min -0.4C; Culdrose 8.8 mm; Morecambe 16.1h. The 12th began mostly cloudy as the thundery low to the SW encroached S Britain. At 0900 GMT pressure 1012 mb continued to fall, but it was sunny and warm the temperature 17.7C (dewpoint 13.4C) soon rising to 19.3C the day's maximum. At Gorwel Heights the maximum was 20.4C at 0900 GMT. Turning cloudier through the day and becoming murky by evening the day remained dry. Thunderstorms made their way along the Channel reaching Kent later in the day. There were large thunderstorms also in S France [Cap Bear 125 mm Montpellier 79.1 mm]. Kew Gardens 26.8C; Bude 26.2 mm Milford Haven 8.2 mm; Leeming 13.5h Hawarden 3.9h. The barometer reached its lowest point 1008 mb at 0304 GMT and the morning of the 13th began overcast with little of no wind and moderate visibility. Either side of 0900 GMT it was very dull and murky with a little fine drizzle in the air and a few spots of rain insufficient to wet anything. Later there were glimpses of weak sunshine and the cloud began to thin. Pressure was 1009 mb and was low 1005 mb central England to E Anglia. Later in the afternoon there were spells of sunshine the temperature reaching 15.9C at 1641 GMT then a clearing sky in the evening. Hampton WW 21.7C Hawarden 19.0C; Nottingham 41.0 mm [33.8 mm]; Tiree 10.6h Valley 5.2h.

River Conwy just upstream of the Waterloo Bridge (1815), Betwsycoed.Clear sky last evening and a cool night with minima 6.8C air and 3.5C grass on the 14th with little or no wind. It was overcast and murky by morning with a light air from the north. Pressure 1015 mb was rising with an Atlantic-high 1019 mb to the NW and SW, an occluded front was moving S over the Channel. Soon a few breaks appeared and with bright spells and sunshine developed in the afternoon when a line of cumuli persisted over the tops of the Snowdonia Mountains. [Max 16.1C rain nil] Thorney Island 20.0C Resallach min -1.9C; Tyndrum 11.6 mm; Tiree 15.4h Valley 5.6h. Although overcast again on the 15th the cloud was thin enough for some brightness and sunny spells later. [Max 17.8C Rain nil] Hampton WW 21.3C Braemar min -1.5C; Tiree 2.0 mm; Bude 13.6C.


Yellow and orange Welsh Poppies in the garden.

A fine and sunny morning on the 16th with very good visibility. There was a ridge of high-pressure over the UK with pressure here 1025 mb. Mostly sunny Gorwel heights 20.6C [Max 17.3C Rain 0.3 mm] Heathrow 24.5C Hawarden 22.5C; Isle of Skye 13.2 mm; Camborne 12.3h.

Bumblebee visiting a yellow Welsh Poppy in the garden. A dull and sunless day on the 17th with frontal cloud slow-moving over the Irish Sea there had been early drizzle and slight rain. With pressure steady on 1021 mb the cloud was not going anywhere. Pressure was high 1032 mb over sea area FitzRoy while there was unsettled weather in the central Mediterranean due to low 1013 mb Tyrrhenian Sea. Beginning with a temperature of 15.7C at 0900 GMT there was little variation as the maximum was 16.4C at 17 GMT. [Rain 0.3 mm] Heathrow 26.1C; Rochdale 13.0 mm; Shoeburyness 9.6h. Continuing disappointingly dull on the 18th, and cooler 11.8C at 0900 GMT, with pressure steady on 1024 mb low 1003 mb was E Iceland with cloud massed to the NW. There was a W or NW'ly airflow that kept the sky cloudy most of the day until late afternoon when some sunny spells developed. [Max 15.3C Rain nil] Thorney Is. 22.6C; Resallach 14.4 mm; St Athan 15.3h.

The 19th began misty and dull with the cloud low on the Snowdonia mountainsides and around the Anglesey coast in the W some slight drizzle at times. There was a warm front over the Irish Sea and North Channel associated with low 992 mb S of Greenland. The cloud was thick enough here early in the afternoon for some slight drizzle, but then the sky cleared for about 20 minutes giving some warm sunshine with a maximum temperature of 15.6C. A painted lady butterfly was spotted on the Caucasian crosswort Phuopsis stylosa, native in the Caucasus and N Iran, which is a mass of flower in the garden at the moment. [Rain 2.7 mm] Bournemouth 22.6C and 13.2h Hawarden 15.9C; Ballypatrick Forest 3.2 mm. Painted Lady butterfly on Phuopsis in the garden.Overnight in the warm sector air the temperature at midnight was 12.5C and in the morning of the 20th there was thick fog between 05 and 07 GMT and 15.3C (dewpoint 15.1C and 99% RH) at 0900 GMT when visibility had improved to moderate. Underside view of Painted Lady on Caucasian crosswort in  the garden.The morning was wet and the afternoon had a little sunshine with short showers heaviest at 1954 GMT falling at a rate up to 25 mm/h. The temperature here at 1438 was 20.1C while at Gorwel Heights and Rhyl it rose to 20.3C at 1600 GMT. [Rain 2.6 mm] Killowen 23.0C; High Beach 18.8 mm Rhyl 8.0 mm; Magilligan 9.5h. A fresher feel to the start of the 21st at 0900 GMT 12.0C and 84% RH. Mostly cloudy, but sunny spells coming along especially in the afternoon when it felt warmer the temperature briefly reaching 16.2C. [Rain 3.2 mm]. Writtle 21.3C Hawarden 17.8C; Kirkwall 29.0 mm; Valley 8.8h. With low 992 mb S Greenland and 1003 N North Sea there were cold fronts to the N and S of here where pressure was steady on 1011 mb. A heavy shower of rain 7.6 mm/h at 0507 GMT on the 22nd, but low cloud was lifting and the sky looking brighter at 0900 GMT. The day turned out mostly sunny and dry. [Temp 16.9C] Murlough 19.4C; Swanage 13.4 mm; Tiree 14.1h Valley 11.5h. A very fine and dry day on the 23rd began with broken clouds that cleared later giving plenty of sunshine and a maximum temperature of 18.2C in the afternoon. Hereford 22.6C; Houghton Hall 1.0 mm; Morecambe 15.1h. Temperatures kept up overnight with the air minimum falling to 11.5C around dawn on the 24th under broken clouds. A fine morning with very good visibility, but soon turning cloudier with freshening S'ly wind. The afternoon was breezy with glimpses of sunshine keeping fine until 1720 GMT when there were spots of rain [Temp 17.4C Rain trace] Kew Gardens 24.6C; S Uist 7.8 mm Capel Curig 0.6 mm]; St Athan 11.4h.

A murky morning on the 25th with overcast sky and por visibility. There had been some spots of rain earlier and it was still spotting at 0900 GMT, but there was little in the way of volume of any rain. Low 983 mb was W of Ireland and there was a slow-moving kinked frontal system over the Irish Sea, pressure here was 1020 mb. The day kept dull and sunless here, but it was brighter in llanfairfechan where there wqas a little sunshine in the afternoon when the temperature rose to 21.0C. Under the cloud 18.7C was the best on offer. [Rain 2.3 mm]. Gravesend 26.4C; Edinburgh 16.2 mm; Bournmouth 13.9h. A wet morning on the 26th the rain a little heavier around noon then the sky began to clear with some sunshine later. The maximum here was 18.0C, but at Gorwel Heights it was 23.5C highest in Wales today. [Rain 1.4 mm]. Gravesend 27.8C Gorwel Heights 23.5C Hawarden 22.9C; Kinbrace 17.2 mm Mona 4.6 mm; Aberporth 7.7h. The 27th began fine and bright though breezy after a few spots of rain. Pressure here 1018 mb was rising with low 987 mb S Iceland and high 1024 mb Cap Finisterre. Soon sunny spells with scattered clouds and a little warmer in the afternoon 18.9C with 20.9C at Gorwel Heights. [Rain 2.5 mm]. Gravesend 25.4C; Kirkwall 11.8 mm; Boulmer 12.5h. Mild overnight with the air minimum 13.6C on the morning of the 28th. Overcast sky with slight intermittent rain after earlier rain. There was a fresh to strong SW'ly wind with frontal system and triple point over the North Channel. The afternoon was fine and sunny. [Max 19.4 trace of rain] Gravesend 22.9C Gorwel Heights 22.0C Hawarden 21.8C; Eskdalemuir 21.8 mm; Valley 8.4h . Very fine and bright on the 29th with weak sunshine then infrequent sunny spells and a few large spots of rain at 1610 GMT otherwise dry. The temperature rose to 19.1C during the afternoon, but the day's maximum, highest of the month so far, was 22.5C just before 0900 GMT next morning. Gravesend 26.7C; Kinlochewe 11.8 mm; Wattisham 14.8h. At 0900 GMT on the 30th the temperature was 22.0C on a very fine warm morning. Visibility was very good and clear before haze developed in the afternoon. At 1615 GMT the temperature had risen to 25.1C with the warmth continuing into the evening and was still 18.3C at midnight and on the sunny next day morning rose to 27.2C at 0850 GMT so counting as the maximum. The 27.2C was the highest maximum in June and of the year so far. Norfolk 30.5C Hawarden 29.0C; Stornoway 17.2 mm; Waddington 15.7h Aberporth 13.7h.

A dry month with a total of 41.6 mm of rain (57%) &[62%] of averages, lowest since 2006. Temperatures overall were below average, the mean 13.5C was (-0.7) & [-0.4] of averages. Sunshine at Valley was 238.7h, the 4th sunniest June on the Anglesey record since 1931.


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July 2015

July 1 - and a very warm sunny morning, a plume of warm air from the S making it feel like the Mediterranean and not Anglesey. The temperature at 0850 GMT had reached 27.2C here and 27.1C at Gorwel Heights falling back here to 27.0C 58% RH at 0900 GMT. Very fine and very warm and sunny with a S'ly breeze the temperature touching 27.2C again at 1210 GMT, enjoyed while it lasted. A record UK high temperature of 36.7C was recorded at Heathrow. Some spots of rain early in the afternoon then came on to rain about 16 GMT. [Rain 1.7 mm] Heathrow 36.7C, Usk 29.2C, Hawarden 28.5C, Rhyl 27.3C, Capel Curig 27.1C,Mona 26.7C; Durham 8.6 mm; Odiham 11.6h. Cooler on the 2nd under a veil of thin cloud the temperature at 0900 GMT 14.3C (dewpoint 13.7C) 96% RH. Visibility was poor in mist improving only a little before spots of rain and slight showers in the afternoon clearing to sunny by evening. Daytime maximum 18.0C [Max 18.9C Rain 0.6 mm]. Santon Downham 28.3C Hawarden 21.0C; Exeter AP 18.0 mm; Wattisham 8.6h. Cooler and fresher on the morning of the 2nd, in fact back to normal! Mostly cloudy sky, poor misty visibility, but pressure 1016 mb was rising with lo 992 mb SW Iceland and a frontal wave over the Faeroes while pressure was high 1029 mb Greenland and 1030 mb the Baltic. The temperature rose from 13.7C to a daytime maximum of 18.0C in. weak sunshine around 1110 GMT. Dry until the afternoon when there were spots of rain and slight showers of rain before clearing up in the evening with sunshine. [Max 18.9C 0.6 mm] Santon Downham 28.3C; Exeter AP 18.0 mm; Wattisham 8.6h. Overnight some low-lying mist formed on the surrounding fields as the temperature dipped to 12.0C had disappeared in sunshine by morning. Soil moisture percentage (% dry mass).An almost clear sky at 0900 GMT on the 3rd with variable convergent S and NE breezes, settling to a NE'ly shown by the station's 2 wind vanes. Sunny. The soil is looking very dry and the bare plot has fine cracks. Sampled today moisture content of the soil (moist and crumbly) under grass had fallen to 32.4% dm and on the bare plot (dry and very crumbly) to 14.6% dm. The grass was still looking green, but on the lysimeter it was greener. Some vegetable plants and potted plants are needing irrigation, but there is no wilting of mature plants and trees. Thunderstorm from 2130 GMT for at least an hour. Mostly distant almost continuos rumblings with frequent lightning seen and spots of rain at 2150 GMT. [Max 23.6 Rain 0.4 mm] Hampton WW 28.3C Rhyl 23.8C; Fair Isle 9.8 mm; Kinloss 15.8h Valley 10.4h. There was more thunder and lightning at 0130 GMT with broken cloud and by the morning of the 4th the sky was overcast, but fairly bright. There was a blustery S'ly wind with a temperature of 18.3C; a shower of rain in sight arrived at 0910 GMT. Strong S'ly wind in the afternoon mostly sunny. [Max 19.9C trace] Norwich AP 29.5C; Inverbervie NE Scotland 41.6 mm; Wattisham 13.4h.

It was still breezy on the 5th, mostly cloudy fine and at first dry. Pressure was 1015 mb with complex low 996 mb S of Iceland and 1015 Gironde, France. Light showers swept in morning and afternoon (4 mm/h fell at 1401 GMT) on separate shower fronts. Two men were treated in hospital for burns after lightning strikes in the Brecon Beacons which killed two men while walking on the Brecon Beacons near Pen y fan. Four mountain rescue teams and an RAF Sea King helicopter from Chivenor, in Devon, were called to these 4 separate incidents at the summits of Corn Du and Cribyn which were described as an unusual occurrence. [Max 18.4C at 0922z Rain 2.9 mm] Heathrow 24.7C; Ballypatrick For. 30.6 mm Scolton CP 28.0 mm; Tiree 10.9h. A very wet, windy and sunless day on the 6th after an early fine and dry start. Rain commenced at 0840 GMT and by 0900 GMT was heavy (6.2 mm/h). Heavy again at 1153 GMT falling at a rate of 10 mm/h. Pressure here was 1016 mb with highs 1031 mb Greenland and 1021 mb Tunisia. Complex low-pressure systems were to the west ( 996 mb) as a rain bearing cloud mass moved across North Wales through the day with 23.4 mm of rainfall (21-21z) recorded at Aberdaron. [Rain 11.1 mm, largest fall of the month] Gravesend 24.9C; Aberdaron 23.4 mm; Shoeburyness 13.3h Hawarden 2.2h. A dull and breezy start to the 7th with an overcast sky and moderate visibility with low cloud on the lower slopes of the Snowdonia Mountains. Brighter towards noon then a sunny spell when the temperature rose to 17.6C. Later still breezy rain bearing clouds encroached and there was rain from 1700 GMT heaviest at 1911 GMT 7.8 mm/h. [Rain 3.3 mm] Gravesend 24.7C; Aberdeen 40.8 mm where there was flooding, Capel Curig 21.0 mm; Wattisham 8.7h Aberporth 8.5h. Not much change at first on the morning of the 8th, overcast with thick cloud and early drizzle and slight rain. Soon brighter with sunny spells developing and a fine and sunny afternoon the temperature rising to 17.9C at 1540 GMT. St James Park 22.1C; Spadeadam 15.2 mm Sennybridge 13.0 mm; Valley 8.1h. A fine cool morning on the 9th with very good visibility with clear views of Lleyn and Bardsey Island. Overnight the air minimum was 7.2C and down to 4.3C on the grass. The afternoon was mostly sunny with the temperature reaching 17.6C and the day dry. Two painted lady butterflies were seen in the garden. Kew Gardens 23.6C; Derrylin Cornahoule 3.6 mm; St Athan 14.7h. The 10th began fine, sunny and warm and at 0900 GMT the temperature 18.2C was highest of the past 24h. There was a moderate S'ly breeze and visibility was again very clear the sky a complex of altocumulus and cirrus clouds with orographic waves. Pressure was 1018 mb with an Atlantic low 997 mb W of Ireland. Pressure was high 1025 mb over Belgium and 1025 mb over the Azores. A dragon fly was seen around the garden during the day and the ravens were very vocal at the top of their favourite pine tree. They mobbed a buzzard that was passing too close. The maximum temperature was 23.9C. Later in the afternoon frontal cloud, that had been over Ireland encroached, making for a dull end to the day and rain before midnight. [Max 23.9C Rain 2.3 mm] Kew Gardens 27.2C Hawarden 26.6C; Harris Quidnish 34.8 mm; Wattisham 13.6h.

The sky was clearing rapidly on the morning of the 11th, after early showery rain, with a thin veil of cirrus and a few cumuli remaining. The temperature was 15.6C and the relative humidity 79%. A sunny morning and at first in the afternoon with a maximum of 18.7C. Showery rain came along midafternoon and evening before heavier rain just before (17 mm/h at 2350 GMT) and after midnight. [Rain 10.0 mm]. [Gravesend 26.2C; Capel Curig 24.0 mm; Herstmonceux 13.0h Valley 5.6h]. The rain petered out after 0230 GMT on the 12th, but the sky was still mostly cloudy at 0900 GMT. It was fairly fine and warm at 15.7C and the day brightened up with some sunshine later. [Max 18.4C Rain 6.8 mm] [Pershore 23.5C & 20.2 mm; Leconfield 9.4h Valley 3.9h]. Light showery rain after midnight on the 13th and still raining at 0900 GMT. Visibility was poor in low cloud and at times fog with slight drizzle. A sunless day here and mostly dull over southern Britain. [Max 12.9C Rain 2.7 mm]. [Hawarden 22.4C; Sennybridge 12.0 mm Lake Vyrnwy 11.0 mm Capel Curig 0.0 mm; Glasgow 2.8h Hawarden 1.3h Valley 0.5h]. Calm overnight and little or no wind on the morning of the 14th. After a shower of rain at 0845 GMT the sky brightened and by afternoon with pressure 1018 mb rising it was warm, dry and mostly sunny with light breezes. A clear evening.[Max 18.9C Rain nil]. [Charlwood 23.6C; Aboyne 9.8 mm St Athan 7.2 mm Sennybridge 5.8 mm; Glasgow 10.3h Valley 9.9h].

With mostly clear sky overnight on the 15th the grass minimum had dropped to 6.9C and the air minimum to 9.3C. Pressure was on 1021 mb. A cool start with 13.7C (dewpoint 9.6C) at 0900 GMT then warming up through the day under fairly clear skies reaching 17.4C in the afternoon. Sunniest in north-west Britain; it was the brightest day of the month for solar radiation here attaining a total of 25.75 MJ m -2 and the sunniest day of the month at RAF Valley reporting 15.0h. Another dry day. [Shoeburyness 24.9C; Aboyne 4.6 mm; Glasgow 15.2h]. Similar on the 16th with 4 oktas of thin cloud in the morning. Pressure 1017 mb was falling and cloud began to increased during the morning, but the temperature rose to 22.8C by 1330 GMT. There was showery rain at 1630 GMT and some more before midnight as the SSW'ly wind strengthened. [Rain 3.2 mm]. [Northolt 25.3C; Ronaldsway/ Spadeadam 32.4 mm; Leconfield 12.4h Valley 4.9h]. The 17th was mostly cloudy at first with glimpses of sunshine, turning sunnier by afternoon and with some passing clouds the temperature rose to 17.6C. Solar radiation was 23.39 MJ m -2 . and the day dry. [Gravesend 25.8C; Aberdeen 20.0 mm; Valley 10.0h]. A breezy morning on the 18th, but it was bright and sunny. The grass minimum had been down to 7.7C and the air minimum 10.2C so on the cool side. Pressure 1014 mb had risen, but cloud encroached during the afternoon and pressure to fall and continued breezy the SSW'ly fresh at times. The day kept dry until after midnight. [Max 18.4C 8.2 mm] [Gravesend 24.8 mm; Keswick 22.2 mm Rhyl 12.4 mm; Wattisham 12.5h Valley 12.4h]. Rain after midnight, moderate to heavy at times (11.8 mm/h at 0100 GMT), petering out after 0430 GMT. A mostly cloudy dawn on the 19th and broken cloud in the morning. At 0900 GMT the temperature was 13.2C (dewpoint 10.5C) with very good visibility. Sunny spells developing especially in the afternoon. [Max 17.4C Rain 0.3 mm]. [St James Park 25.2C; Dishforth 13.4 mm; Valley 13.6h].

An unpromising start to the 20th with overcast skies, thickening cloud, moderate visibility and showery light rain from 0840 GMT. The SSW'ly wind light at first strengthened in the afternoon becoming fresh at times. There were one or two breaks in the cloud allowing a little sunshine at times later. [Max 18.8C Rain 0.8 mm]. [Benson 25.2C; Kirkwall 13.4 mm; Leeming 6.1h] . With overcast skies continuing the 21st was a dull day with little in the way of any sunshine. Continuing fine sunny and warm in south-eastern Britain[Max 17.1C Rain 2.9 mm] [Gravesend 26.2C Manston 24.4C; Bala 6.2 mm Capel Curig 5.4 mm; Manston 14.4h Valley 0.5h]. Dull overcast and wet again early on the 22nd. After 0900 GMT (12.6C 98% RH) it kept mostly dry here, but there was a downpour in Pentraeth at 1030 GMT. Not much in the way of sunshine here either. [Max 16.4C trace]. [Gravesend 24.4C; Loch Glascarnoch/ Castlederg 6.2 mm; Lerwick 13.5h]. Brighter on the 23rd with 6 oktas of cloud cover, but still managing to squeeze a few drops of rain around 0900 GMT. Light SSW'ly wind, very good hazy visibility and brighter again later on with a maximum temperature of 16.7C. [Shoeburyness 23.1C; Culdrose 29.8 mm; Charterhall 11.5h]. A dull and sunless day on the 24th. Intermittent slight rain with a light NE'ly breeze at 0900 GMT with a little more rain around noon and early evening. Widespread heavy rain in southern Britain, fine and sunny in the north. [Max 15.6C Rain 0.6 mm]. [Carlisle 18.4C; Wattisham 40.2 mm; Glasgow 11.4h].

On the 25th pressure 1017 mb had risen a little and the morning began fine and bright with decreasing amounts of cloud. Cool, the temperature at 0900 GMT was 13.1C up from overnight minimum of 10.2C going on to reach 17.2C early in the afternoon. Rain kept away until after midnight. [Rain 0.6 mm]. [Heathrow 21.7C; Spadeadam 8.0 mm; Shobdon 13.2h Tiree 12.7h Valley 8.4h]. On the 26th the weather was back to overcast dark grey skies and rain. Light rain intermittent through the morning and again in the afternoon. There were heavy downpours in Llanfair and Llangaffo in the afternoon. Pressure fell to its lowest of the month 992.5 mb. The dullest day of the month with solar radiation 6.42 MJ m -2 . [Max 15.4C Rain 7.4 mm]. [Exeter 20.5C; Liscombe 25.8 mm Capel Curig 15.4 mm; Stornoway 9.3h Boulmer 7.9h]. Another overcast and dull day on the 27th, again sunless here with 2nd lowest solar radiation level of the month 6.94 MJ m -2 . The cloud thick enough for drizzle and spots of rain from time to time before some moderate to heavy bursts came along in the evening (20 mm/h between 1850 and 1900 GMT. [Max 15.2C Rain 4.7 mm]. [Shoeburyness 21.9C Manston 21.6C; Bingley 27.8 mm; Lerwick 9.6h]. Much the same on the 28th after early showers of rain, dull damp and cool. The 0900 GMT temperature was 11.8C with 95% RH. A little brighter in the afternoon with a little sunshine and sunnier in the W of the island with 5.3h recorded at RAF Valley. [Max 16.1C Rain 2.2 mm]. [Shoeburyness 20.9C; Dishforth 21.2 mm] Shobdon 11.1h]. Continuing dull, damp and cool on the 29th after moderate to heavy rain between 0700 GMT and 0730 GMT (heaviest 13 mm/h). At 0900 GMT the temperature was 11.7C (lowest of the month) rising from a minimum of 8.9C reaching 14.5C that was the lowest maximum of the month. [Rain 1.1 mm]. [St James Park/ Heathrow 20.3C; Capel Curig 9.8 mm; Ronaldsway 10.2h Valley 6.7h]. Overnight the air minimum on the 30th had dropped to 7.2C and on the grass to 3.5C, both lowest of the month. There had been zero evaporation recorded by the Piche evaporimeter 24-h 09-09 GMT today (quite rarely). Mostly cloudy, but the sun was breaking through from time to time. A little warmer 12.2C this rising to 16.6C in the sunnier late afternoon. A dry day. [Gravesend 20.6C; Skye 11.8 mm; St Athan 13.0h Valley 6.4h]. The 31st began brightly with 6 oktas of thin cloud cover decreasing. After an overnight minimum of 8.3C and 4.1C on the grass it was warmer too at 0900 GMT with the temperature risen to 14.6C 79% RH and later to 17.2C in the afternoon in some spells of sunshine. Later cloud thickened and there was rain with heavy bursts either side of midnight, highest 18 mm/h at 0040 GMT . [Rain 4.4 mm]. [Northolt 23.2C; Prestwick 13.4 mm; Bournemouth 13.9h].

The month ended with a mean temperature of 14.8C (-1.2) & [-1.0] of averages, lowest since 2012 ranking 10th since 1979 and 23rd since 1941. In a cool month the highest maximum was 27,2C (+1.3) on the 1st. Rainfall 78.4 mm (85%) & [112%] of averages was lowest since 2012 rank 40th since 1928. Sunshine at Valley was lowest since 2012.

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August 2015

August 1 - began mostly cloudy after overnight rain, with the sun was breaking through over the Carneddau Mountains. Pressure was low 1000 mb off the Western Isles and here 1013 mb with a frontal band of cloud over central Britain. With an overnight minimum of 11.1C, and 9.3C on the grass, the temperature rose to 16.8C as the day brightened from the W by afternoon with some sunshine [Rain 2.0 mm] . Writtle 23.7C; Capel Curig 15.0 mm; Valley 5.6h. A warmer day on the 2nd though starting mostly cloudy at 09 GMT in a S'ly breeze it was 15.8C and rose to 21.3C at 1610 GMT in a sunnier late afternoon. Charlwood 26.6C Hawarden 24.7C; Scilly Is. 8.0 mm; Shoeburyness 12.5C. NOAAThe 3rd was similarly warmer in a S'ly breeze. At 0040 GMT the temperature was 19.5C, but at 0900 GMT was 15.6C with pressure 1006 mb rising. Atlantic-low 979 mb was W of Shannon, Ireland with associated frontal cloud N of Scotland and shower clouds over the UK. A slight shower of rain during the morning, but a fine and dry rather breezy afternoon with a maximum of 18.5C. More in the way of sunshine in the W with Valley reporting 8.3h. Coningsby 26.4C Hawarden 22.6C; Machrihanish 10.2 mm; Edinburgh 12.5h. A very windy day on the 4th SSW'ly force 6/7 from early on with large waves driven onshore around the coast including at Rhosneiger. Low 980 mb was off the Hebrides and with an occluded front over the Irish Sea the morning was dull and wet especially on the Snowdonia Mountains. Pressure 1006 mb was rising with high-pressure 1023 mb over the Baltic; 1026 mb over Greenland and 1016 mb over the Med. Brighter by afternoon when there were a few sunny spells, but continuing windy. [Max 17.4C Rain 0.4 mm] Writtle 22.9C; Tyndrum 22.8 mm Capel Curig 14.2 mm [11.0 mm]; Kirkwall 9.1h. Much the same on the 5th, but the wind had moderated and it was S'ly force 4. Low cloud on the hills, misty with moderate visibility. Brighter during the morning with a few lee-waves clouds forming and glimpses of sunshine and with the afternoon keeping mainly cloudy there were few slight showers before a spell of rain came along in the evening and a heavy shower (18 mm/h) at 2300 GMT. [Max 19.5 Rain 4.8 mm] Frittenden 23.8 mm; Derrylin Cornahoule 20.8 mm; Lerwick 8.1h. Overcast with drizzle and slight rain in low cloud and mist on the 6th after passage of a weak cold front in early hours; the temperature had been 15.8C falling to 12.7C. Pressure 1011 mb was rising quickly but the cloud lingered here well into the afternoon that eventually saw some sunshine. Clearer in the west of the island where Valley reported 9.4h of sunshine. Warm and sunny in SE England. [Max 17.6C Rain 0.1 mm] Cavendish 26.0C; Millport 17.0 mm; Bude 11.1h. Another disappointing day on the 7th, mostly cloudy with spots of rain at times under some thick dark clouds piling up against the mountains. A few spells of sunshine later afternoon and evening as the sky cleared. Clearer sky was seen to the NE and W during the day and Valley reported 12.0h of sunshine. [Max 18.5C trace dew/fog]. Clear sky developed overnight and there was fog after midnight and at 04 GMT was thick for a while. Fog had lifted by 08 GMT, but dew was very heavy on the ground and raingauges, but was lingering in some low-lying places and around the coast. Sunny by 0900 GMT the temperature lifting to 16.1C. Visibility was now very good with clear views of the mountains, Llyn and Bardsey Island. High cloud (cirrus in variable amounts) moved across from the west during the afternoon this becoming thicker in the west by late afternoon. No rain during daylight hours. [Max 21.0C Rain 0.5 mm]. It was back to overcast skies and drizzle and slight rain on the 9th during the morning and into the afternoon that eventually was a little brighter and drier. Sunless here, but Valley reported 0.7h. [Max 16.6C Rain 2.7 mm] Gravesend 27.8C; Capel Curig 7.4 mm; Shoeburyness 13.8h.

Pressure 1012 mb was falling on the grey morning of the 10th in a trough from low 986 mb over Iceland. Cloud was low although there were some thinning patches with glimpses of the sun in a blustery S'ly breeze. Visibility was misty and poor, the temperature was 16.5C and there were spots of rain from time to time. By afternoon conditions had improved and it was sunny though still breezy with a maximum of 18.3C. A line of cumulus clouds persisted over the Snowdonia Mountains. Norwich 26.8C Hawarden 22.5C Gorwel Heights 20.6C Rhyl 19.7C; Lusa 34.0 mm Capel Curig 16.0 mm [10.2 mm]; Boulmer 12.2h. On the 11th with low cloud on the hills the morning began fine, but dull. Pressure 1021 mb was rising, but cloud persisted here all day. At times cloud was thick and dark, where as on the W coast there was sunshine. It was the first day of the Anglesey Show that also was mostly cloudy with a slight shower in the morning. The cloud sheet edged eastward in late afternoon giving a little sunshine. The temperature here was 15.6C at 09 GMT and rose to 15.7C soon after, the highest of daylight hours and lowest of the month, whereas at Valley's maximum was 19.2C [6.5 h sunshine]. Today's maximum 15.7C, being lowest of the month, was repeated at 09 GMT on the 12th! Newport (Salop) 22.7C; Lossiemouth 10.2 mm; Aberporth 10.1h. Cloud had cleared overnight and in the early morning of the 12th and there was a low mist on the fields with a grass minimum of 5.5C a very heavy dew had formed. Pressure was steady on 1026 mb. The day was very fine and sunny with very good visibility with view of Bardsey Island possible, and a maximum of 19.9C in early afternoon. Solar radiation was 23.10 MJ m -2 highest of the month. Coton-in-the-Elms 25.8C; Herstmonceux 21.0 mm; Morecambe 14.1h Valley [12.5h]. The 13th also began fine and mostly sunny with pressure fallen to 1018 mb. Low 871 mb was SW Iceland and a thundery low had developed over Biscay. Cloud soon encroached from the S, but the sky kept clear to the N of here then dispersing to give more sunshine in the afternoon before some showery rain in the evening. Thunderstorms moved up from France into S England , Sussex and Kent with flooding reported in Brighton. [Max 19.9C Rain 8.0 mm] Carlisle 23.9C Porthmadog 23.3C Valley 22.0C Gorwel Heights 21.7C Mona 20.1C; Herstmonceux 35.4 mm Capel Curig [9.4 mm]; Leuchars 13.3h Valley 9.4h. The 14th was a sunless day here with fog at 06 GMT thinning to moderate fog by 0900 GMT. Very dull and damp with drizzle and slight rain at times in the morning. Drier during the middle of the day, but no sunshine and keeping cool. Slight rain in the evening. It was very wet again in Staffordshire and S Wales. [Max 16.4C Rain 0.8 mm]. Weybourne 25.6C Porthmadog 18.3C Gorwel Heights 15.6C; Keele 52.4 mm Usk 28.6 mm; Thomastown 5.4h. ¤

A brighter morning on the 15th, after overnight minima of 7.7C in the air and 3.9C on the grass, both lowest of the month. with some a band of cumuli developing across the Snowdonia Mountains. A little sunshine before the sky turned mostly cloudy and a spell of sunshine came along around 1530 to 1600 GMT. A dry day; soil moisture under grass determined today was 48.9% dm and on the bare met plot 26.4% dm. The yield of grass at the weather station so far this year is 8.3 tonnes per hectare, about average over the past decade. [Max 16.9C rain nil] Frittenden 22.7C; Balmoral 15.8 mm; Morecambe 12.8h. The 16th began fine, but dull under overcast sky, with the temperature at 0900 GMT 15.0C. There was a glimpse of sunshine around 10 GMT otherwise with cloud persisting over the eastern half of Anglesey a rather dull day here. It was sunnier again on western coasts with Valley reporting 9.7h duration. [Max 19.2C Pptn trace] Northolt 21.8C; Stornoway 3.8 mm; Lerwick 13.4h . The sky had cleared overnight and the early morning of the 17th was almost cloudless, while there was very good visibility at height there had been mist and fog patches around the coasts. Pressure was steady on 1020 mb and in the sunshine the 16.0C at 0900 GMT felt very pleasant indeed. Some cloud developed, mostly fair weather cumulus here, and there were good sunny spells in the afternoon the temperature reaching 20.0C. The have been several butterflies around the garden in recent days; comma, peacock, red admiral, white and speckled wood. Cavendish 23.2C; Castlederg 9.6 mm; Kinloss 13.9h Valley 13.4h. Much the same on the 18th, a very fine morning with wisps of cirrus clouds, one patch with a sundog (right parhelia), and contrails overhead at 0900 GMT. A mostly sunny day with maxima here of 19.4C and Gorwel Heights 22.1C. The best of the sunshine and warmth today was in western Britain and Ireland. Killowen 23.9C Phoenix Park 24.2C Dublin 23.3C; Fair Isle 43.4 mm; Tiree 13.4h Valley 13.0h. It could not last and with a low pressure area 995 mb to the NW on the 19th cloud and rain encroached had by 0750 GMT. Breezy too and already piles of autumn tinted beech leaves lay on the ground. As the cloud thickened the morning turned dull with light rain; the afternoon continued overcast, but dry. [Max 18.6C]. Kinlochewe 24.4C; Pembrey Sands 25.8 mm [26.0 mm] Mumbles Head [25.4 mm] Plymouth [22.8 mm]; Shoeburyness 8.1h.

The 20th began warm and sunny as with a S'ly breeze small clearances had formed in the lee of the Snowdonia Mountains. Sunshine was variable as the cloud cover changed from time to time. Pressure 1016 mb was steady with low 989 mb S Iceland. At 0900 GMT the temperature was 17.3C and this rose to 21.6C in the afternoon and to 24.5C in Llanfairfechan at Gorwel Heights at 1520 GMT, highest of the month. Llanfairfechan, Gorddinog 24.0C Rhyl 23.2C; Shoreham 16.0 mm; Aberdeen 9.9h Valley 3.7h. A cloudy night with air temperature not falling below 15.5C and 15.3 on the grass. Overnight the minima did not fall below 15.5C in the air and 15.3C on the grass, highesdt of the month. It was a damp morning on the 21st with recent slight showers up to 0900 GMT when the sky was brightening. Again with a S'ly wind the sun was breaking through from time to time with a temperature of 17.4C. Visibility was moderate to poor with mountaintops obscured in cloud and fog. Soon closing again there were spots of rain during the morning with some light rain and drizzle in the afternoon. Gravesend 27.6C Hawarden 22.6C Gorwel Heights 22.3C Rhyl 22.2C; Preston Moor Pk 19.2 mm; Charlwood 9.1h. Overcast and calm on the 22nd, another very disappointing sunless 'summer' day here again. Earlier slight rain was petering out and the afternoon was drier, but still overcast and dull. Heavy showery rain in the evening (heaviest fell at up to 12 mm/h at 2140 GMT) [Max 19.6C Rain 5.0 mm]. Gravesend 30.9C Cardiff 25.2C; Bramham 62.4 mm Hawarden 28.8 mm [32.8 mm] [Capel Curig 10.2 mm]; Wattisham 13.1h. As for the 23rd more of the same. Pressure was 999.6 mb with the low here over Anglesey and the Irish Sea. It was warm; the temperature at 0900 GMT was 19.1C and rose to 19.3 just after and this was the day's maximum (20.2C at Gorwel heights). Thereafter it was downhill with continuous drizzle or rain, and heavy showers (heaviest falling at up to 26 mm/h at 1330 GMT0 easing off a little later in the afternoon. Cloud was mostly low, and visibility moderate to poor at times when misty in rain or drizzle. Solar radiation was only 4.61 MJ m -2 , lowest of the month. [Rain 12.3 mm, largest of the month]. Sutton Bonnington 27.0C Hawarden 23.5C Mona 19.7C; Katesbridge 65.2 mm Aberdaron 37.8 mm Dublin 33.5 mm; Kirkwall 13.2h St Athan 4.5h. Some respite came along later on the 24th. Starting mostly cloudy pressure 1001 mb had risen a little and the breeze W'ly. Slowly the sky cleared and by afternoon it was fine with sunny spells. [Max 17.9C trace]. Kinlochewe 22.9C Porthmadog 19.3C; Thorney island 45.6 mm; Lerwick 7.1h .

The first red squirrel spotted in the garden for over 40-years.After an absence of about 40-years a red squirrel was spotted this afternoon the 25th in the garden and wood on peanuts and taking water. Reds were here in the early 1970's then declined to an Anglesey low of about 40 animals in 1997 as grey squirrels invaded; the last red was found dead on the road under overhanging trees. In recent years more than 3000 of the greys have been culled (there was an eradication programme here), but it has been while for the reds surviving in Pentraeth and along the Menai Strait to find their way along hedgerows to Llansadwrn. Now there are over 700 on the island living in the absence of greys. Clear overnight with the air minimum down to 9.1C and 5.4C on the grass, fine and bright at first, but thickening cloud encroached during the morning bringing light rain showers by the afternoon. [Max 17.2C Rain 3.7 mm] Exeter AP 21.0C Hawarden 19.2C; Wiggonholt 27.3 mm; Charterhall 9.7h. A very blustery morning on the 26th, bright with sunny spells after early showers had cleared. Pressure 996.4 mb was rising, but with complex low 989 mb lying to the NW and tight isobars it was very windy here the SW'ly f5/6 at times. There was a short heavy shower of rain at 2152 GMT that fell at a rate up to 21 mm/h. Storms and heavy rain in SE England and S Wales. [Max 18.2C Rain 2.7 mm] Loftus 20.7C Gorwel Heights 19.8C Rhyl 19.5C; Heathrow 47.8 mm Mumbles Head 25.4 mm; Bude 10.5h Valley 9.8h. Low 982 mb was S Iceland on the 27th and pressure here 1002 mb was rising. A fine morning with a SW'ly breeze and 4 oktas cloud cover. The breeze strengthened later, but in sunshine the temperature rose to 17.1C by afternoon. [Rain 3.8 mm]. Wainfleet 21.8C Rhyl 18.6C Gorwel Heights 18.3C; Tyndrum 27.4 mm Tredegar 21.4 mm; Leeming 12.6h Valley 12.3h. A showery morning on the 28th with cumulonimbus cloud and towering cumuli in the vicinity. We caught a sharp shower at 0755 GMT that fell at a rate up to 125 mm/h so glad it was not at 0900 GMT! The pressure 1011 mb was rising with lows stationed S Iceland 986 mb and Norway 088 mb while there was high-pressure 1021 mb over the Med. Sunny spells were pleasantly warm the maximum 18.1C, but under passing clouds the moderate breeze was cool. Cambridge Niab 23.9C Rhyl 19.5C Gorwel Heights 19.3C; Tyndrum 21.2 mm Bala 11.0 mm [9.2 mm] Capel Curig 12.0 mm]; Shoeburyness 10.7h Valley 10.6h. A bright fine morning on the 29th with towering cumuli in the vicinity, but it kept dry here. A moderate SW'ly breeze and a temperature of 16.2C (dewpoint 12.4C 78% RH) at 0900 GMT with pressure 1017 mb rising. Low 998 mb was N Scotland and high 1024 mb over the Med. Central and northern parts of the UK were sunniest today as a warm front associated with a low off Iberia affected southern coasts and the Channel. Windy again here in the afternoon, but mostly sunny the temperature rising to 19.2C. The soil surface was dry and soil moisture determined today was 49% dm under grass and down to 20% dm on the bare met plot. Silver Y moths are around the garden, is a medium-sized moth that can be seen on warm days. The caterpillars feed on a wide variety of plants, including stinging nettles, clover and cabbages. A migrant, it was seen flying during the daytime, but also flies at night, feeds on nectar from buddleia and lavender. Gravesend 23.9C Gorwel Heights 20.3C Rhyl 19.5C; Blencathra 22.0 mm (or Saddleback, one of the most northerly mountains in the English Lake District) Capel Curig 12.6 mm; Valley 10.2h.

Mostly cloudy overnight so little chance of a clear view of the 'super moon'. A mostly cloudy start to the 30th with clouds building from dawn. Pressure was steady on 1020 mb with frontal cloud still lingering over the Channel and the S edging northwards. There was an area of heavy rain over the Severn estuary and SW England kept away from here. The morning kept fine and there was some brightness at times, but it was a cool day here the maximum 15.9C near noon (Gorwel Height 16.0C). Local farmers were kept busy harvesting the cereals on nearby fields while it was still dry with full wagons trundling by all day. Later geese were heard flying over on the way to glean the fields. Herstmonceux 23.5C Porthmadog 19.2C; Katesbridge min 4.3C; Achnagart 17.4 mm; Leuchars 8.7h Valley 0.7h. The 31st, end of the month and meteorological summer, a Bank Holiday and a fine day in Anglesey and N Wales. The many visitors made good use of the beaches and mountains. Pressure 1017 mb was steady with low 1013 mb North Sea. The warm front was still lingering over E Anglia, the SE and N France and Channel. Valley reported 12.3h of sunshine, highest in the UK today. [Max 18.2C Rain 2.6 mm]. Threave 19.7C Porthmadog 19.1C; Eskdalemuir min 2.8C; Santon Downham 27.4 mm Sennybridge 15.8 mm [Gorwel Heights 27.2 mm, Weybourne 25.2 mm]; Valley 12.3h.

The month ended with a mean temperature of 15.2C (-0.1) & [-0.4] of averages, highest since 2013 ranking 15th lowest since 1979. The highest maximum was 21.6C (-1.0) on the 20th. Rainfall 65.0 mm (67%) & [75%] of averages was lowest since 2010 rank 23rd lowest since 1928. Sunshine at Valley was most since 1995 ranking 6th on the Anglesey record since 1931.


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September 2015

September 1 - and after midnight thunderstorms broke out over Liverpool Bay. There was thunder and lightning here from 0319 to 0337 GMT resulting in 3 shorts breaks in the electricity supply, accompanied by heavy rain at 0324 GMT that fell at a rate up to 16 mm/h. An electrical surge protector on the phone line was blown saving connected equipment from damage. There was a deluge at Gorwel Heights with rain falling at a rate of 129 mm/h at 0515 GMT with 27.2 mm accumulated by 0900 GMT, credited to 31st August. At nearby Gorddinog 11.6 mm had fallen (32 mm/h at 0521 GMT) and in Llansadwrn just 2.6 mm fell - an indication how variable shower rainfall volumes and intensities can be over relatively short distances. At 0900 GMT with cumulonimbus and cumuli in the vicinity there was slight showery rain with the sky remaining dark over Red Wharf Bay. A further burst of heavy rain 34 mm/h at 1014 GMT. It was a wet morning with light rain at times before turning drier in the afternoon and glimpses of sunshine from 1500 GMT onwards. [Max 14.2C Rain 10.0 mm]. Swanage 20.2C Achnagart min 4.3C; Aviemore 17.0 mm Capel Curig 10.2 mm; St Athan 10.2h. The 2nd began mostly cloudy and calm, or with a variable NW'ly breeze. There had been a shower recently and there were some more to come at 0900 GMT and later. Pressure was steady on 1020 mb with low 996 mb S Norway and high 1031 mb over the Atlantic to the north-west. A NW'ly breeze did set in by the afternoon it was brighter and there was a glimpse of sunshine (1330 GMT), otherwise dull. [Max 14.5C Rain 2.0 mm]. Writtle 20.4 Benson min 4.0C; Hawarden 40.4 mm; Bournemouth 8.8h.


Autumn: Over the hedge top in llansadwrn.

The 3rd began with slight showers of rain and it was damp and rather cool in a N'ly breeze. Autumn: Ripening rose hips along a llansadwrn hedgerow.Quite an autumnal feel again this morning with air being drawn down from the vicinity of Iceland between low 1001 mb N North Sea and the Atlantic-high W of Ireland. The day kept mostly cloudy and dry, but there were some bright and sunny spells early afternoon. Along the hedgerows rose-hips are ripening (left) and I remember when these were collected in W.W.II to make rose-hip syrup as contains vitamin C. Blackberries too are ripe and I picked enough to freeze and keep for several apple and blackberry crumbles during the winter. Local folk have been busy sawing and chopping up logs - sign of a hard winter to come perhaps? [Max 16.7 Rain 0.2 mm]. Glasgow 18.7C; Cromer 12.6 mm Hawarden 5.4 mm; Glasgow 8.3h Valley 5.3h. A dull and damp morning on the 4th with intermittent slight drizzle. Cloud and fog was low on the lower slopes of the Snowdonia Mountains, otherwise visibility was good. Pressure 1021 mb was rising with filling slow-moving low 1005 mb S North Sea and high 1034 mb W of Ireland. The breeze was N'ly and the cool air today was coming from the Arctic region vicinity of Svarlbard. [Max 14.9C Rain 0.2 mm]. Cardiff 19.6C; Fylingdales 7.8 mm Capel Curig 4.8 mm; Morecambe 8.7h. A fine and bright morning on the 5th with cirrus and cumulus clouds with large contrails overhead. We still had the cool NE'ly breeze, but in sunshine in sheltered parts made quite a pleasant day. [Max 16.1C Rain nil] Isle of Portland 18.3C Pembrey Sands 18.1C; Emley Moor 4.6 mm; Glasgow 12.6h Valley 9.4h.

Tour of Britain Cycle Race peleton passing through Llansadwrn. On the 6th the Tour of Britain Cycle Race started the first leg on the Green in Beaumaris at 11 am. The peleton passed through Llansadwrn on the way to Pentraeth, about 100 people turned up to see them and cheer them on. The race continued to Llangefni then crossed the Menai Suspension Bridge, on to Penypass and finished in Wrexham. The weather was overcast and there was a little drizzle at times here through the day. Dull and sunless. A red squirrel was spotted again in the garden feeding on peanuts. [Max 14.5C trace]. Leuchars 21.0C Shap min 0.7C; Lerwick 5.6 mm; Leuchars 12.6h With the sky cloud covered overnight the grass minimum temperature was 10.5C on the morning of the 7th in contrast to the 4.4C the previous night. There were some breaks appearing at 0900 GMT when the air temperature was 12.7C. Calm at first later a light W'ly became a NE'ly in the afternoon. Mostly sunny by midmorning with the temperature rising to 17.8C by afternoon. Several butterflies were spotted around the garden including a red admiral and peacock. Cloud encroached by late afternoon and the evening was cloudy. Soil moisture content under grass determined today was 56% dm and on the bare met plot it was 22% dm. Grass was growing at a rate of 5.1 g m -2 d -1 . [trace of rain] Braemar 22.2C Shap min 0.7C; Resallach 1.8 mm; Charterhall 12.7h Hawarden 8.1h Valley 2.2h . The 8th began very fine and sunny with some cirrus clouds and a slight haziness to the good or very good visibility. Pressure was steady on 1029 mb with a high 1032 mb over the UK. Low 976 mb was to the W and S of Iceland. [Max 20.5C Min 9.5C] [Gorwel Heights 20.9C Castlederg 20.4C; St Helier 10.2 mm; Valley 12.0h]. With a clear sky overnight heavy dew formed on the grass and the air minimum on the 9th had been down to 7.8C. Some high cirrus clouds otherwise clear at first with a light NE'ly turning cloudier later with a S'ly breeze Pressure was 1023 mb and the day here again mostly sunny with 10.8h recorded at RAF Valley. Cloud formed over the mountaintops of Snowdonia and to the south the day was mostly cloudy [Max 19.2C Min 7.4C] Gorwel Heights Max 17.8C [Herstmonceaux 21.3C Northolt 20.7C Altnaharra 20.2C Shap 3.1C min; Wainfleet 0.8 mm ; Stornoway 11.6h Valley 9.4h

On the 10th there was a band of cloud associated with frontal-wave low 1007 mb W of Ireland. At 0900 GMT pressure was 1021 mb and the temperature 16.1C 78% RH, a light ESE'ly breeze dominated through the day with a little cloud formed in the vicinity mainly in the E during the afternoon. Later the band of cloud and rain encroached on W Ireland, but the day kept dry here. [Max 21.3C Min 10.6] Gorwel Heights 20.5C [Chivenor 22.9C; NSR; Shoeburyness 12.2 h Valley 10.8h]. A bright start on the 11th as the band of cloud and rain on a warm front moved slowly across Ireland and the Celtic Sea. At 0900 GMT pressure was 1013 mb and the temperature 15.7C (dewpoint 10.8C) rising to 21.2C early in the afternoon. A little rain came along by 2210 GMT with more falling after midnight accumulating [6.2 mm] by morning. A windy day at Gorwel Heights with an average wind speed of 12 mph and wind run of 240 miles (00-00z) in a dominantly SE'ly breeze compared with an average speed of 0.8 mph in Llansadwrn [Max 21.2 Min 12.2C]. [Northolt 22.5C; Min Aonach 4.1C, St Helier 1.0C; Mace Hd. 44.0 mm, Glennanne 24.0 mm, Camborne 23.6 mm; Wattisham 10.7h Valley 5.1h]. On the 12th after a heavy burst of rain at 0620 GMT the day was mostly dry. Pressure was 1003 mb with low 994 mb NW of Malin Head the band of cloud had transferred to the North Sea by afternoon. Showers were moving in off the Irish Sea on a W'ly breeze towards North Wales and there was a line of cumuli topping the Snowdonia Mountains. Sunny at times with a slight shower in the afternoon. [Max 15.5C Min 11.0C Rain 0.6 mm] [Writtle 23.0C; Ballypatrick Forest 32.6 mm, Whitechurch 20.8 mm; Bournemouth 8.4h Valley 5.5h. Pressure on the 13th was low 991 mb between Iceland and Cape Wrath, Scotland and 996 mb off S Ireland. Weather was very unsettled in W France and Iberia as well. Pressure here was 1003 mb with a detached warm front over the Irish Sea. The day was mostly cloudy, but bright with a little sunshine at times. [Max 18.1 Min 10.6C Rain 1.6 mm] [Heathrow 20.0C Capel Curig min 1.0C; Montelimar, France 160.7 mm, Mace Hd. 57.0 mm, Valentia 45.0 mm, Dublin 2.1 mm; Kirkwall 9.4h Valley 3.8h]. On the 14th there was little change in the general unsettled situation with frontal-wave low 989 mb over South Wales. Light rain and drizzle 1.6 mm since midnight and further light to moderate rain during the morning. At 0900 GMT pressure was 993 mb and with an occluded front over the Irish Sea. The temperature was 11.2C (dewpoint 9.6C RH 90) and the rain petered out by early afternoon that turned out brighter with glimpses of sunshine later. There was further rain becoming moderate then heavy before midnight (33 mm/h at 23.50 GMT). It was the wettest day of the month. [Max 13.8C Min 10.8C Rain 16.2 mm] [Heathrow 19.8C Altnaharra min -0.3C; Milford Haven 58.6 mm, Chivenor 46.6 mm, Cranwell 32.8 mm, Pembrey Sands 25.2 mm; Stornoway 10.3h Valley 1.4h]. Moderate to heavy rain at times on the 15th after midnight (40 mm/h at 0010 GMT) and again at 0410 GMT (98 mm/h) before dying out. Low cloud and mist persisted over 0900 GMT and cleared only slowly through the morning with some brightness and sunshine at times in the afternoon. After an overnight minimum of 7.2C it was 12.1C (dewpoint 11.4C 96% RH) at 0900 GMT and rose to 16.3C early in the afternoon the day keeping dry. [Max 16.3C Min 11.5C] (Pershore Coll. 20.3C, Braemar min 0.2C; Loftus 52.2 mm Whitechurch 22.2 mm; Morecambe 8.1h) [Valley 4.1h].

At midnight on the 16th low 990 mb was off Rockall, Scotland, while deepening low 982 mb was off Cap Finisterre with a frontal-wave developing off the Charente Maritime, France. Pressure here was 993 mb falling to 991 mb by 1600 GMT. With an overnight minimum of 6.5C the morning was bright and convective clouds persisted in the afternoon as the temperature rose to 16.2C. In the Charente Maritime with a cold front over the Gironde estuary there was heavy rain and prolonged thunder and lightning from the early hours. The River Charente was in flood and in the afternoon a series of cumulonimbus clouds with very black funnels developed near Le Gua. Inland, a tornado shown on French TV, hit Matha 30 miles NE of Le Gua about 1400 GMT, taking the roofs off several houses, uprooting trees and damaging vehicles (prob. cat. 2). Another 2 tornadoes developed later and caused more damage. [Max 16.2C Min 6.5C] [Jersey 18.8C, Crosby 18.2C; Mins Capel Curig 0.9C Topcliff 1.0C Mona 2.4C; Isle of Portland 37.8 mm; Wattisham 28.2 mm; Boulmer 11.6h Valley 8.4h]. A mostly cloudy morning on the 17th after another cool night with a minimum of 6.9C. At 0900 GMT with pressure 999 mb rising the temperature was 11.4C (dewpoint 11.0C with 97% RH) going on to reach 15.4C in a brighter afternoon. [Pershore Coll. 18.7C; Shap min 0.0C; Montellimar, France 67.2 mm, Lentram 17.8 mm; Wittering 8.4h Valley 4.7h].

On the 18th there was complex low-pressure 988 mb over the Baltic with high 1023 mb W of Iberia. At 0900 GMT pressure had risen to 1011 mb having a ridge W of Ireland. A bright morning with some connective clouds around reducing, but persisting in the afternoon especially over Snowdonia. A dry day. Warmest and sunniest in the north. [Max 17.1C Min 11.1C Pptn 0.2 mm]. [Glasgow 20.0C Aonach Mor min 3.5C; Wattisham 16.4 mm; Tiree 10.8h Valley 7.5h]. On the 19th pressure had increased to 1026 mb as the ridge of high-pressure moved across from the west by noon with a high 1028 mb centred over Biscay at noon. A cool morning to start with an overnight minimum 0f 8.8C rising to 11.8C at 0900 GMT. Mostly sunny with increasing amounts of high cirrus clouds. [Max 18.1C Min 8.8C] [Leeming 20.7C Loch Glascarnoch min 1.1C; NSR; St Athan 10.9h & 17.9C Leuchars 10.7h & 18.5C Valley 10.3C & 16.2C]. Pressure 1024 mb was falling on the morning of the 20th as a band of cloud moved across from the west. Somewhat brighter at times and dry during the day. There was showery light rain from 2020 GMT that became heavy after midnight. [Max 15.2C Min 10.3C Rain 13.6 mm] [Gravesend 20.9C Capel Curig min 2.6C; Dundrennan 20.8 mm Valentia 20.0 mm; Jersey 11.1h, Shoeburyness 10.3h, Valley 0.8h]. Rain turned heavy from 0550 GMT on the 21st and fell at rates of 24 to 35 mm/h before petering out before 0900 GMT. Soon brightening the morning was partly cloudy with the sun breaking through as frontal bands of rain moved eastward. Pressure 1021 mb was had fallen a little with low 997 mb S Iceland while pressure was high 1031 mb N of the Azores. There was a showery trough over Ireland, but in the event the day kept dry until heavy showers came along at 1910 to 1920 GMT that fell at rates up to 43 and 45 mm/h. [Max 15.4C Min 12.0C Rain 5.6 mm] [Hereford 17.6C Cairngorm min 5.1C; Bala 30.2 mm Mumbles Hd. 20.0 mm; Ronaldsway 6.4h Valley 4.4h. After a heavy shower at 0730 GMT the morning of the 22nd was bright with some sunny spells before noon. Pressure had fallen to 1004 mb with low 997 mb over the North Sea with associated cold front over France. At times the afternoon was partially cloudy. [Max 14.5 Min 7.9 Pptn nil] [Cranwell 17.5C Eskdalemuir min 0.4C; Manston 20.2 mm Capel Curig 15.0 mm; Glasgow 9.5h Valley 4.0h. The 23rd began overcast after an overnight minimum of 6.6C. With pressure on 1011 mb a frontal triple-point was over the Irish Sea associated with low 980 mb S Iceland and was moving eastward. There was light rain from 1140 GMT then the cloud band began to clear about 15 GMT to give some sunshine late in the afternoon. [Max 14.5C Min 6.6C Rain 2.2 mm] [Bournemouth 18.5C Eskdalemuir min 1.7C; Aultbea 10.0 mm; Manston 7.9h & 17.7C, Valley 1.6h].

The 24th began brightly with pressure 1011 mb unchanged from yesterday. Complex low-pressure 993 mb was over Iceland and with high 1024 mb S Brittany and Biscay we were in a cool W'ly airflow. A little cloud at times through the day with long spells of sunshine. [Max 14.7C Min 9.7C Pptn nil] [St James Park 18.9C Cairngorm min 0.1C; Dubrovnik 155.0 mm Loch Glascarnoch 17.6 mm; Boulmer 10,2h Valley/ Hawarden 8.9h]. A bright and sunny morning on the 25th with pressure risen to 1023 mb associated with high 1026 mb persisting over the SW Approaches. A W'ly airflow persisted and it was mostly sunny with a line of cumuli forming across Anglesey and the Snowdonia Mountains in the afternoon. [Max 15.7C Min 8.4C Pptn nil] [Larkhill 22.3C Cairngorm min 0.5C; Argostoli, Greece 140.1 mm, Altnaharra 5.6 mm; Leuchars 10.7h St Athan 10.5h Manston 9.6h Valley 9.4h]. The 26th was another fine and sunny day again across much of Britain after a cool start and some early fog patches in the N had cleared. Pressure was on 1030 mb. [Max 19.2C Min 7.4C Pptn nil] [Gravesend 19.3C Trawsgoed 18.8C Rhyl/ Crosby 18.1C Sennybridge min 0.1C; Baltasound 3.8 mm; Valley & St Athan 11.3h]. On the 27th pressure had risen here to 1034 mb with the high 1037 mb moved over the S North Sea off Lincolnshire. After an overnight minimum of 7.7C the temperature rose to 19.1C in a mostly sunny and dry day with a little high cirrus cloud at times. [Heathrow 19.3C Carlisle 19.1C Shobdon min 0.5C; Stornoway 1.4 mm; Jersey 11.2h, Manston 10.7h, Valley 10.3h. Similarly, the 28th was very fine and sunny again with pressure 1037 mb with the North Sea high 1040 mb. [Max 18.7 Min 8.5C Pptn nil] [Mona 19.9C Redesdale Camp min 0.2C; NSR; Jersey 11.5h Valley 10.9h. Pressure 1037 mb was unchanged on the morning of the 29th before the high 1940 mb drifting towards S Sweden later in the day. Mostly sunny. [Max 20.1C Min 9.7C Pptn nil] [Edinburgh 21.2C Redesdale min 1.3C; NSR; Jersey 11.3h Valley 8.9h]. And much of the same on the 30th with pressure little changed on 1036 mb. Mostly sunny with highest temperatures in the north of the country. [Max 16.7C Min 8.4C Pptn nil] [Aviemore 22.4C & Min 0.6C; NSR; Odiham 11.1h Valley 10.8h].

The mean temperature of 13.1C (-1.0) & [-0.7] of averages, was lowest since 2013 and September ranked 8th coolest since 1979. A fairly dry month, the 68.8 mm (70%) & [72%] of averages was least since 2013 and ranked 23rd driest since 1928. A remarkably sunny month at RAF Valley with 187.8 h sunniest on the Anglesey record since 1931. The sunniest day was on the 21st with 12.0h.


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October 2015

October 1 - a very fine, clear and sunny morning on Anglesey, in Snowdonia and most of Britain with some fog patches in the Welsh Marches and Midlands. Pressure was still high on 1034.6 mb within UK high 1037 mb and after an overnight minimum of 7.8C the temperature at 0900 GMT was 10.9C (dewpoint 9.7C). Low 1003 mb was over the western Mediterranean where it was unsettled with storms developed in Corsica and Sardinia with damaging winds and large precipitation, storms also affected S coast of France. A sunny dry day mostly everywhere in Britain. [Max 19.1C Min 7.8C] [Aviemore/ Charterhall 20.8C Mona 19.5C Shap min -1.6C; Sardinia 161.6 mm Corsica 80.5 mm Nice 63.0 mm Lerwick 1.6 mm; Valley/ Boulmer 11.1h Jersey 10.9h]. [Ny Alesund Max -3.1C Min -5.7C]. On the 2nd some coastal cloud/ fog affected Anglesey in the morning and although this had burnt off during the afternoon sunshine amounts were reduced. More heavy rain on the Cote d'Azur in France and Barcelona in Spain. [Max 16.7C Min 6.2C Grass 1.4C]. [Boulmer 19.9C Mona 17.3C Keswick min 0.3C Bala & Mona min 1.4C; Nice 63.0 mm Barcelona 48.1 mm Lerwick 1.4 mm; Jersey 11.0h Valley 6.6h]. An overcast day on Anglesey on the 3rd with no sunshine reported in the west at RAF Valley, the first sunless day since 23 August! It was brighter on the mainland along the North Wales coast from Llanfairfechan. Storms, including a tornado at Le Ciotat, continued in S France. In 1 hour between 1900 and 2000 GMT 107 mm of rain fell on Cannes; 174 mm in 2 hours and 196 mm over 24-hours. Large amounts of precipitation occurred in places on the Alpes-Maritime east of St. Tropez including Antibes, Mandelieu, and Nice devastating infrastructure, many homes and businesses over a wide area. At least 22 died, many were drowned including in a tunnel. Power supply was lost in over 9000 dwellings and the A8 Autoroute and railway were closed. The catastrophe dominated French TV channels, except for the rugby match where Australia beat England 23 pts. to 13 pts. at Twickenham ensuring that Wales went through to the quarter finals, during the evening and for several days following. French Meteo experts on TV accounted for the exceptional precipitation by saying cold air from the N over Britain moving S met warm humid air from both the SW (W Med) and SE (E Med) over the Alpes-Maritime. Storms of this nature occur at this time of year, but are usually more localised. This event seems to have affected a much wider area of the Alpes-Maritime than usual. [Max 14.0 Min 6.2]. [Plymouth 18.4C Valley 13.5C West Freugh min 0.1C; Cannes 195.5 mm Nice 111.7 mm Montelimar 29.7 mm, South Uist 1.8 mm; Camborne 10.1h.

On the 4th pressure 1014 mb was falling with several lows assembled over the Atlantic set to move eastward across Europe. It was calm before the storm at 0900 GMT with fine and bright weather. A mass of cloud associated with low 989 mb N Biscay was moving NE and brought rain to W France and the SW of England and S Wales later. A windy day at Gorwel Heights gusting 34 mph with a run of SE'ly wind of 230 miles and a maximum temperature of 17.8C and 4.2 mm of rain. [Mona & Crosby 16.5C]. [Max 16.9C Min 8.8C Rain 0.2 mm]. [Charlwood 18.6C Charterhall min 1.2C; Nantes, France 15.6 mm Dunkerswell 13.4 mm; Shoeburyness 9.2h Valley 5.7h]. Very windy in the early hours of the 5th and at 0900 GMT whole trees were in motion in the force 7 S'ly. Pressure had fallen to 996 mb with a low 991 mb over N Ireland at noon and complex lows 987 mb off SW Ireland. Windy again at Gorwel Heights the SE'ly gusting 37 mph with a maximum temperature of 21.0C reached in the Föhn-like wind that reached Llansadwrn at times 17.1C. A mostly cloudy day everywhere except in the far north. [Max 17.1C Min 10.4C Rain 0.7 mm] [Gorwel Heights 21.0C Hawarden 20.6C Valley 16.2C Aviemore min -1.4C; St Catherine's Point 20.8 mm; Lerwick 3.4h. After a showery night a fine and sunny morning on the 6th although pressure 995 mb was still low parts of Wales and N Ireland were in the clear, with most other parts cloudy with rain.. Low 991 mb was over Cornwall. [Max 19.1C Min 13.0C Rain 12.3 mm Gorwel Heights 20.8 mm] [Blackpool 20.2C Cairngorm min 6.5C; Trawsgoed 29.8 mm Blackpool 25.4 mm Aberdeen 23.0 mm Valley 4.8 mm; St Athan 5.1h Belfast 4.9h Valley 4.3h]. Cloud cover remained overnight so the minima on the 7th under the blanket, though cooler, were 9.8C in the air and 9.9C on the grass. At 0900 GMT the sky was dark and the temperature was 10.6C and the air humid at 97%, and surface soil temperature (5 cm) was 12.9C up 0.2C was yesterday. Soon brighter with the cloud dispersing to give a sunny afternoon in the north-west, and a dry day. [Max 14.4C Min 9.8C] [Manston 17.4C Aonach Mor min 3.1C; Leeming 21.8 mm; Tiree 8.4h Belfast 8.3h Valley 7.2h]. A mostly clear night with lower temperatures and down to 2.7C on the grass with heavy dew. A very fine morning on the 8th with pressure risen to 1021 mb and a mostly sunny day. [Max 16.7C Min 8.3C, Gorwel Heights 17.1C] [Hereford 17.9C Cairngorm min 0.1C; Mumbles 2.6 mm; Kinloss 10.5h Valley 6.7h]. In contrast, the 9th began overcast and dull although pressure had risen to 1023 mb and it was calm. High 1026 mb was over the North Sea and an area of low cloud/ fog developed over the Irish Sea persisting before a mass of cloud, on a warm front over Ireland, moved across later in the afternoon ensuring a sunless day. Elsewhere, mostly sunny. [Max 16.3C Min 8.6C] [St James Park/ Northolt 18.2C Aboyne min -2.0C; Stornoway 7.8 mm; Shoeburyness 10.5h Hawarden 9.4h Valley 0.0h]. Continuing with the anticyclonic gloom on the 10th with another sunless day, but dry mostly everywhere. Pressure was unchanged on 1023 mb in a ridge from Baltic high 1030 mb while low 997 mb was off Cap Finisterre remnant of hurricane Joaquin that had crossed the Atlantic. [Max 13.6C Min 8.3C] [ Kinloss 16.8C Shobdon min 3.5C; St Helier 5.2 mm; Kirkwall 7.0h]. A similar day on the 11th being overcast, dull and sunless. [Max 15.0C Min 10.6C Rain 0.3 mm] [Castlederg 16.8C Cairngorm min 1.4C; Aboyne 10.4 mm] Waddington 8.2h].

On the 12th there was some slight rain from 0840 GMT running over 0900 GMT observations before dying out. The morning remained dull then the afternoon was brighter with some sunshine in a clear slot after passage of a weak front from the north. [Max 14.4C Min 9.9C Rain 0.2 mm] [Plymouth 17.1C Sennybridge -0.7C; Nimes, France 76.9 mm Charterhall 4.6 mm; Bude 9.6h]. In contrast the 13th began very fine and sunny with good visibility. Pressure 1028 mb was rising with high 1030 mb to the NW and Scotland. A mostly sunny day with little or no wind in the afternoon. Soil moisture determined today was 54.2% dm under grass and 22.1% on the bare plot. [Max 13.9C Min 9.9C trace]. [Killowen 17.3C Altnaharra -3.7C; Fylingdales 1.8 mm; Aberporth 9.5h Valley 7.9h]. Another bright morning on the 14th after being mostly clear overnight so that the temperature on the grass had fallen to 1.0C lowest since 0.8C on the 30 May. We have yet to have a grass frost this autumn, the last in the spring was -0.2C was on 29 April. There was moderate dew and this had dampened the soil surface that was dry yesterday, but it dried quickly later. It was calm at first before a gentle cool NE'ly picked up and with pressure on 1028 mb the settled weather continued. In the warm sunshine many hoverflies and honey bees were in the garden visiting the late flowering plants. The Michaelmas daisy, late flowering this year, attracted several butterflies including comma, small tortoiseshell , red admiral and many speckled woods. There are still some ripening tomatoes on the vegetable plot to be picked, any green ones will be used for chutney. [Max 13.4C Min 5.1C] [Plymouth 15.3C; Manston 7.4 mm; Aberporth 9.5h Valley 8.2h]. Mostly clear skies at night with air minimum of 5.5C on the morning of the 15th that had 1 okta of cloud cover, some cumuli to the NE and starting to form over the mountaintops There was a low mist on the fields at 06 GMT and heavy dew that looked from the distance to be frost (also dampened the soil surface), but the station's grass minimum read 1.6C. Several UK stations had reported air and ground (grass frost) already this autumn. A sunny day with good, but moderately hazy, visibility. A few clouds formed over E Anglesey during the afternoon. [Max 13.8C Min 5.5C ] [Murlough 15.8C Porthmadog 15.7C, Katesbridge -2.6C; Holbeach (9.0 mm) Weybourne 4.8 mm; Valley 9.4h].

A very dull morning on the 16th with cloud having encroached and recent slight rain. Pressure was steady on 1025 mb and there was a gentle NE'ly breeze. The day was sunless and moisture was felt in the air at times when the cloud thickened, dullest day since 11 February with solar radiation of 2.82 MJ m -2. At Ny Ålesund, Svarlbard, 12 cm of snow was recorded today with maximum temperature -0.4C and minimum -1.0C. [Max 12.0C Min 7.7C] [Wick 15.9C Pembrey Sands 14.4C, Braemar -3.9C; Herstmonceaux 3.0 mm Manston 2.8 mm; Leuchars 8.7h]. Much the same starting the 17th, fairly dull with good hazy visibility. Pressure was unchanged on 1025 mb with high 1029 mb N Scotland. A clear patch before dawn allowed temperatures to dip a little, air 7.2C at 0625 GMT and to 3.3C on the grass. Brighter later with glimpses of sunshine in the afternoon. [Max 12.7C Min 7.2C Rain 0.6 mm] [Helens Bay 15.6C Braemar -5.0C; Fylingdales 1.4 mm; Loch Glascarnoch 9.0h Valley 4.1h]. Another grey sunless day after recent slight rain on the 18th with high 1027 mb stationed N Scotland pressure had fallen a little here 1024 mb. Low 993 mb was off Cap Finisterre and it was raining in the S France and showery in the west. No further precipitation here. [Max 12.0C Min 6.9C Grass 2.6C] [Camborne 17.7C Katesbridge -1.0C; Port Glenone 3.4 mm, Manston (2.4 mm); Prestwick 6.9h. Another dull and sunless day on the 19th. Pressure 1027 mb was rising within UK high 1027 mb centred over the Tay Estuary. Visibility was good although there was moderate haze and cloud was high enough to be over the mountaintops. Light rain was reported at Valley at 19 & 21 GMT and Gorwel Heights 21 to 22 GMT 0.8 mm. [Max 13.4C Min 10.0C Grass 9.3C trace of dew] (Plymouth 17.2C Mumbles Hd. 16.9C; Stornoway 6.8 mm; Rostherne 7.6h).

A bright morning on the 20th with early mist and poor visibility. There was heavy dew with the grass minimum down to 2.7C and traces in the raingauges. Very fine, a nice autumnal day a little cloud around noon cleared to give a sunny afternoon. Autumn colours are well developed on beech and horsechestnut trees. With the last of the tomatoes picked, still green ones will be turned into chutney the chrysanthemums, that have been growing in the garden in pots, were moved into the greenhouse as var. Lilian Shoesmith has well formed buds and flowers opening. There is a good crop of Bardsey apples this year. Getting colder in Ny Ålesund max -5.7C min -7.7C snow lying 12 cm. [Max 14.4C Min 7.1C Rain 23.5 mm] [Cardiff 16.5C; Mona 23.6 mm, Isle of Man 22.8 mm, Valley 18.0 mm; Lyneham 8.4h Valley 5.6h]. Much the same on the 21st, overcast and very grey and misty with moderate visibility. Pressure was steady on 1016 mb and there was a cold front over the Irish Sea and cloud was slow to clear. Low 975 mb was SE Iceland and another 977 mb over the Norwegian Sea was moving eastward. Brighter in the afternoon with a or 2 glimpses of sunshine, hardly 6 mins so almost a sunless day. [Max 14.6C Min 9.1C Rain 0.5 mm] (Aberdeen 21.0C Santon Downham 3.1C; Gogerddan 35.8 mm; Boulmer 5.7h Hawarden 1.1h). At midnight on the 22nd low 937 mb was between Cape Wrath and Iceland and strong winds were affecting N Scotland. Here a gentle W'ly breeze with pressure 1015 mb rising at 0900 GMT with the low 978 mb N of Shetland and high 1027 mb Azores. Bright with a clearing sky and good visibility. Soon it was sunny and it was a nice afternoon when grandchildren were here gathering conkers. Playing with conkers is banned in most school these days! Fewer this year and rather smaller than usual. Also, very few beech nuts on or off the trees: last year there was a very heavy crop. Holly berries generally seem in short supply too although a tree here is well covered, but there are plenty of sweet chestnuts. [Max 14.4C Min 10.7C] (Altnaharra 15.3C Santon Downham -1.5C; Isle of Skye 23.6 mm; Lerwick 3.3h Valley 1.1h). Snow lying on Cairngorm Mountain, courtesy of . Temperature record on Cairngorm Mountain, courtesy of Herriot-Watt University Physics Dept.At midnight on the 24th there was a warm front of the Irish Sea and Wales and the temperature was hovering around 12.5C, the maximum of the 23rd (14.2C at Gorwel Heights at 0100 GMT), until a cold front arrived. At 0700 GMT there was a burst of very heavy rain falling at a rate up to 99 mm/h, the fresh breeze moderated suddenly and the temperature began to fall reaching 8.3C, the day's minimum, at 0900 GMT. Rainfall was 15.6 mm. On Cairngorm Mountain snow had fallen overnight and was lying at 0840 GMT, but here the temperature was too high for any ice precipitation to occur and on Snowdon conditions were closer, but none was seen on the ground. The temperature recorded by the Herriot-Watt AWS (courtesy of the Physics Department) at 4085 ft (1245 m) shows the fall in temperature (graphic right) on the cold front from 0400 GMT that occurred here in Llansadwrn 3 h later at 0700 GMT Click to see graphic. . It was a dull and wet morning with a drier afternoon and a little brightness before some showery rain from 1700 GMT. A clear sky at first in the evening with a temperature falling to 4.6C and 0.1C on the grass, just missing the first frost of the autumn, before cloud encroachment took place. [Max 10.7C Min 8.3C Rain 4.0 mm] (Isle of Portland 15.5C Mumbles Hd. 13.4C, Dalwhinnie 4.4C; Achnagart 32.2 mm Gogerddan 15.8 mm; Thomastown 4.9h Valley 3.3h). Overcast on the morning of the 25th with very good visibility and a slight haze. Overnight the air minimum had fallen to 5.0C, the lowest of the month. Cloud was above the mountaintops and there was a little weak sunshine at times. Pressure 1024 mb was rising, but low 972 mb with a mass of cloud was W of Ireland. Cloud soon thickened and there was showery rain before noon. Drier again in the afternoon with glimpses of sunshine before becoming overcast again by 1600 GMT. [Max 11.8C Min 5.0C Rain 0.8 mm] (Plymouth 14.9C Aboyne -0.9C; Achnagart 18.6 mm; Bude 7.9h).

A fine and sunny start to the day on the 26th with several lenticular altocumulus clouds to the S of the station. There was a light ESE'ly breeze and pressure was steady on 1010 mb. Low 977 mb was W of Ireland with high 1038 mb over Germany. Cloud encroached during the afternoon and there was slight rain from 1545 GMT that amounted to very little, but contained a trace of pinkish white and a dark grey dust. Soil moisture measured today was 56% under grass and 31% on the bare plot. [Max 16.1C Min 5.9C] (Kew 17.8C Valley 17.7C South Newington -1.1C; Camborne 8.4 mm; Rostherne, Cheshire 7.6h). Fine and bright on the 27th and becoming sunny in a developing lee break in the cloud cover. Sunny and warm in Bangor where pavement cafes in the High Street were busy. The afternoon turned cloudier and there was a little rain. Wet in Cornwall and S Wales. [Max 16.5C Min 9.8C Rain 2.3 mm] (Charlwood 19.9C Braemar 0.0C; Cardinham 26.8 mm Whitechurch 17.2 mm; Kinloss 6.4h). Pressure was high 1031 mb over the Baltic and low 970 W of Ireland. A bright morning on the 28th with a clearing sky in a light SSE'ly breeze and pressure of 1006 mb. The afternoon began sunny then turned cloudier later. At Ny Ålesund, Svarlbard the maximum temperature today was -9.6C and the minimum -15.7C. [Max 14.9C Min 8.6C Rain 1.6 mm] (Kew 17.2C Porthmadog 16.2C; Sheffield 34.0 mm; Bournemouth 5.7h). On the 29th it was showery and very blustery at 0730 GMT as a frontal system, associated with deep low 956 mb SW of Iceland, passed over. At Gorwel Heights the temperature fell nearly 6C from 16.2C to 10.4C by 0900 GMT. Pressure 1005 mb was rising quickly and the day though overcast turned brighter with weak sunshine through thin cloud cover. (Lossiemouth 16.2C [16.3C] Usk 15.2C; Machrihanish 18.0 mm; Magilligan 7.2h). The 30th began grey and overcast with light rain before 0900 GMT. Visibility was very good and the sky looked brighter towards Conwy. By 1030 GMT sunny spells had developed and there was a light SE'ly breeze. A warm day with the temperature rising from a minimum of 6.6C to 16.5C during the afternoon in a Föhn wind. There was slight drizzle in the evening and with the Föhn wind continuing the temperature was 17.4C at 2330 GMT and 17.7C at 0157 GMT, highest since the 6th of the month (19.1C). David Lee at Gorddinog, Llanfairfechan, said that his screen temperature peaked at 19.0C just after midnight; in close agreement at Gorwel Heights the temperature reached 18.9C at 0030 GMT. (Nantwich 19.3C Braemar 6.2C; Plymouth 21.4 mm Tredegar 17.6 mm; Aberporth 3.7h). There was light rain around 0320 GMT on the 31st and it was dull and damp in the morning.

Another drier than average month with rainfall of 70.1 mm least since 2007 and (48%) & [55%] of averages ranking 13th since 1928. The mean temperature 11.4C was lowest since 2012 with the 30-y anomaly positive for the first time this year [+0.6] with the decadal anomaly remaining negative (-0.1). Sunshine at Valley was 105.2 h duration most since 2010 ranking 22nd highest on the Anglesey record since 1931.


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November 2015

November 1 - and at 0157 GMT the temperature was 17.7C. With hardly a cloud in the sky there was a clear view of Venus, Jupiter and Mars in close alignment to the SE just before dawn. At 0900 GMT visibility was moderate with some mist in the Menai Strait. Pressure on 1028 mb was rising with high 1045 mb SE Europe; pressure was low 977 mb Greenland and Iceland. A sunny day with the temperature reaching 17.0C, but it rose to a November record of 22.4C at Trawscoed beating the 21.7C recorded in Prestatyn on 4 Nov 1946. (Trawscoed 22.4C Aboyne -1.6C; Baltasound 2.2 mm; Aberporth 8.9h). The 2nd started very fine and sunny before thick fog closed in by 1000 GMT. Fog had dispersed by afternoon that was again sunny before returning at dusk as the temperature reached a minimum of 8.5C around 2000 GMT before rising. Widespread fog caused problems at several UK airports with some flights delayed or cancelled. Cooler today with a maximum of 13.9C, but Trawscoed reached 22.3C the 2nd highest November temperature on record! (Trawscoed 22.3C Aboyne -0.4C; Camborne 8.8h Aberporth 7.6h). There was clear sky overnight and just after midnight the temperature had risen to 11.6C, but on the morning of the 3rd at 0900 GMT it was 10.4C. Mostly cloudy and dull with poor misty visibility and just one or two glimpses of sunshine in the afternoon. In Llandudno the Great Orme was in sunshine as was Bala and Porthmadog. (Braemar 17.0C Porthmadog 13.8C Aboyne -2.2C; Mumbles Head 9.2 mm; Kinloss 7.6h Bala 5.2h. A dull morning on the 4th with some drizzle and light rain at first. Visibility was improving as the mist cleared and the sun broke through by 11 GMT for a while. The afternoon was overcast, but dry. [Max 14.4 Min 8.2 Rain 2.2 mm] [Rhyl 16.4C Braemar min -3.8C; Plymouth 18.0 mm; Stornoway 5.4h]. The 5th saw a complex fronts associated with low 975 mb S of the Denmark Strait and an occluded front over Wales. This gave us a dull and sunless day with showery rain at times. [Max 14.4C Min 8.2C Rain 8.8 mm] [Frittenden 16.4C Magilligan min 0.6C; Capel Curig 23.6 mm; Kinloss 1.7h]. The 6th continued mild, with the minimum temperature 11.6C and 10.5C on the grass, but again an overcast and sunless day. Pressure 1006 mb was falling and there was a blustery fresh to strong S'ly wind with showery rain at times. [Max 15.2C min 11.6C Rain 21.2 mm] [St James Park 17.8C Hawarden 17.2C Kinbrace min 1.4C; Capel Curig 25.4 mm Gorddinog 23.7 mm; Magilligan 2.8h]. Rain from 04 GMT on the 7th turned very heavy falling at a rate of up to 73 mm/h at 0752 GMT accumulating 21.2 mm by 0900 GMT when there was a little standing water. Heavy rain also fell over Snowdonia with 25.4 mm in Capel Curig. At Gorwel Heights 23.4 mm had fallen since midnight with 29.2 mm falling in 24-h (00-00z). There was a frontal-wave over St George's Channel and pressure 1006 mb was still falling with low 968 mb Iceland and high 1029 mb over the Mediterranean. The rain eased and there were some glimpses of sunshine by 1030 GMT, but the sky remained mostly cloudy with showers. At the end of the afternoon there was some brilliant sunshine as the setting sun appeared in the W under the cloud sheet. [Max 12.5 Min 10.2 Rain 7.8 mm] [Hull 18.3C Manston/ Gravesend 18.2C Fyvie Castle min 1.6C; Capel Curig 36.4 mm; Stornoway 4.3h Valley 2.4h].


Met Office rainfall radar (c) Crown Copyright at 1515 GMT on 8 Nov 2015.

At midnight on the 8th Atlantic-low 997 mb was off SW Ireland tracking north. Meteosat MSG image (c) EUMETSAT at 12 GMT on 8 November 2015, courtesy of Ferdinand Valk. Pressure 1014 mb was falling rapidly at 0900 GMT with deepening Atlantic-low 991 mb then off Malin Head moving quickly to be 971 mb N of Scotland in the Norwegian Sea by noon then slowing SW of the Faeroes. The day was overcast, sunless and very dull, quite dark at times under thick cloud, with a fresh to strong SW'ly wind; Gorwel Heights had a gust of 42 mph at 0940 GMT and 65 mph at Caernarfon Airport at 1033 GMT. Light to moderate rain in the morning intensified in the afternoon as cold fronts, with a leading wave over the Irish Sea, moved eastward. Light to moderate rain, heavier at times in the afternoon with a torrential burst up to 180 mm/h at 1511 GMT) during heavy rain on the Snowdonia Mountains and the Lake District. The Met office rainfall radar at 1515 GMT (above) shows the intense rain over Snowdonia (pink/ red >30 mm/h) with localised spots over Llansadwrn and towards Penmon. There was a rain-shadow effect along the mainland coast; rainfall rates at Gorwel Heights and Gordinnog at the same time were 12 mm/h and 10 mm/h respectively. Llansadwrn rainfall for the 24-h ending 09 GMT the 9th was 25.0 mm and Gordinnog 22.3 mm with Llandegai 27.9 mm. [Max 14.9C Min 8.4C Rain 25.0 mm] [Herstmonceaux 16.7C Gorwel Heights 16.7C Rhyl 16.6C Gordinnog 16.5C Aboyne min 0.5C; Keswick 47.0 mm Capel Curig 36.8 mm; Magilligan 0.7h].

There were strong to gale force winds around coasts and mountains from midnight on the 9th. Valley reported force 8 gales from 00 to 08 GMT.Rainfall accumulated 72-h up to 06 GMT on 10 November 2015. SYNOP & local PWS sources. In Llansadwrn there was a gust of 42 mph at 0713 and 58 mph was recorded at Caernarfon Airport and force 9 (mws 10 min of 47 mph). In Amlwch force 8 wind gusting to 56 mph had been recorded. On the Britannia Bridge 30 mph speed restrictions were in force all day and fast-ferries out of Holyhead to Ireland were cancelled. Rainfall over the 72-h period (to 06 GMT on the 10th) in Capel Curig totalled 184 mm, in Llansadwrn 62 mm and in Llanfairfechan at Gorwel Heights 48 mm. In Trefriw in the Conwy Valley, the B5106 was closed in both directions due to flooding of the river Conwy. Train services N of Llanwrst had been hit as the track had been flooded, but had resumed today. Wet again here in the morning with heavy rain at times up to 12 mm/h at 1220 GMT. Drier in the afternoon, but very dark skies the day having a low solar radiation of 0.36 MJ m -2 while nil sunshine was recorded at Valley. Over 100 mm of rain fell on Snowdonia and very mild over 16C with 17.3C recorded in Murlough NI. [Max 14.3C Min 6.0C Grass 0.6C Rain 16.5 mm] [Murlough 17.3C Hawarden 16.3C Gorddinog 16.2C Gorwel Heights 16.1C, Glenanne min 3.5C; Capel Curig 110.6 mm; Leconfield 2.6h]. Overnight on the 10th the Met office said it had been the warmest on record in November at Murlough, Co Down with a minimum temperature of 16.1C. Here between 21 GMT and 09 GMT the minimum was 13.6C and at Gorwel Heights 14.9C. The 09-09 GMT usual minimum was 11.9C, far off the highest 13.5C recorded in 1997. Another mostly cloudy day, dull with drizzle at times. [Max 14.1C Min 11.9C Grass 11.3C Rain 0.6 mm] [Murlough 18.5C Hawarden 17.2C Aboyne min 6.2C; Capel Curig 56.2 mm Shap 28.4 mm; Sheffield 5.0h].

The 11th saw a 3rd day with the 30 mph speed restriction set on the Britannia Bridge and fast ferries out of Holyhead cancelled. Overcast grey skies and a fine drizzle with very poor visibility at 0900 GMT. A frontal system was lingering over the Irish Sea while Atlantic-low 998 mb was S Greenland. Blustery showers and breezy at times in the afternoon, sunless day. Little variation in temperature, high grass minimum 12.8C. [Max 13.5C Min 12.8C Grass 12.5C Rain 0.5 mm] [Hawarden 17.2C Braemar 2.2C; St Bees Head 24.4 mm Spadeadam 18.6 mm; Kirkwall 4.1h Hawarden 3.6h]. The 12th began brighter, but very windy the S'ly blowing force 6. Pressure was falling on 1016 mb with low 982 mb S of Iceland and W of Scotland. High 1029 mb was over Spain. During a little sunshine in the morning in a sheltered patch in the garden I spotted a small tortoiseshell butterfly. There were showers in sight at 1300 GMT and we had a few light ones later in the afternoon. Windy at Gorwel Heights with a gust of 48 mph at 1213 GMT while at Caernarfon Airport a gust of 71 mph was recorded at 1337 GMT. Types of hail. Click for pop-up explanation. Here the highest gust was 40 mph at 1649 GMT on with a cold front that also brought a heavy shower with ice pellets falling at a rate up to 124 mm/h at 1740 GMT (Gorddinog 45 mm/h and gust 45 mph at 1750 GMT). NOAA 19 colour coded thermal image at 1331 GMT on 12 Nov 2015, courtesy of Bernard Burton. Hail of any type has been unusually absent here for a while, the last hail (ice pellets) fell here on 19 May. The cold front was associated with low 970 mb off the Western Isles that has been pre-named Storm Abigail by the Met Office who had started naming significant storms. The NOAA 19 satellite colour coded thermal image at 1331 GMT (left), courtesy of Bernard Burton, shows Abigail with cloud-top temperatures < -50C over Scotland, the cold front moving eatward was over Ireland. Abigail did indeed bring storm force winds and high seas around Scotland (gust of 84 mph) with power supplies to 20,000 properties disrupted. Caledonian MacBrayne ferry operator reported 23 services on the Clyde and Hebrides were also disrupted. [Max 14.0C Min 9.9C Grass 6.0C 8.5 mm] [Gravesend 17.0C Drumadrochit min 1.5C; Cluanie Inn 33.0 mm; Leconfield 6.0h].

A bright and cooler morning on the 13th with a little snow spotted on the top of the Carneddau Mountains, the first of the season. The dates of first snow have been creeping later in recent years. First snow of the season on the Carneddau Mountains.Based on observations over the last 35-y the median date of first snow is 29 October (13-d late this autumn) and of first lying snow 3 November (8-d late this autumn). The hailometer was heavily marked by hail, there having been both snow pellets and ice pellets falling, up to 4 - 5 mm diameter. There were further ice precipitation showers, a heavy one at Gaerwen at 1212 GMT was of 5 - 6 mm ice pellets. In Llansadwrn sleet was observed at 1230 GMT the sunny spells and wintry showers in the afternoon dying out by evening. Breezy with a 20 mph speed limit on the Britannia Bridge and signs indicating it was closed to HSV's, but I saw several taking a chance crossing the bridge. A cooler day than of late. [Max 8.2C Min 5.4C Pptn 4.8 mm] [St Catherine's Point 13.6C Milford Haven 11.3C; Dalwhinnie min 0.5C; Tulloch Bridge 22.2 mm; Camborne 5.9h Valley 4.2h]. There were showers of ice precipitation over the mountaintops early on the 14th, but I could see nothing on the ground although there was snow on Cairngorm. Pressure 1021 mb was falling quickly at 0900 GMT and there was continuous light rain, visibility was moderate and misty. A sunless day. Drier in the afternoon, but by late afternoon the SW'ly was strengthening again gusting 29 mph at 1751 GMT then heavy rain falling from 1820 GMT of up to 36 mm/h at 1839 GMT and further gusts of 37 mph at 2111 GMT. Met Office rainfall radar (c) Crown Copyright at 1830 GMT on 14 Nov 2015. The Met Office rainfall radar image at 1830 GMT shows again the intense rainfall experienced in parts of Snowdonia and the heavy rainfall across Anglesey. Another heavy burst of rain at 2250 GMT of up to 32 mm/h. Rainfall over 12 h duration (between 0900 to 2300 GMT was 17.8 mm. [Max 13.7C Min 5.6C Rain 17.8 mm] [Hereford 16.2C Braemar min 1.9C; Capel Curig 62.8 mm; Aberdeen 2.3h]. There was snow lying on Cairngorm Mountain on the 15th, but on Snowdon with the temperature on 9C it was raining. In Llansadwrn it was windy with the SW'ly force 6 and the temperature 13.4C (dewpoint 12.7C) at 0900 GMT. Overcast, dull and grey dry except for a few spots of rain seen on the window before noon. Dry, but keeping overcast in the afternoon; a very dark day with solar radiation brightest at only 54W m -2 at 1242 GMT. Total for the sunless day was 0.76 MJ m -2. The wind strengthened again in the evening with blustery showers as a cold front passed over; gale force winds were reported at RAF Valley from 21 GMT to 23 GMT. Caernarfon Airport had a mws of 52 mph and a gust of 81 mph at 2306 GMT; wind run recorded for the day (00-00z) was 845 nautical miles (974 statute miles) and here in the garden at Llansadwrn in the lee of agricultural shelter belts 425 miles (hi gust 49 mph at 2315 GMT). At Gorwel Heights wind run was 280 miles (hi gust 44 mph) and Gordinnog (hi gust 49 mph). With large rainfall in Snowdonia the A487 between Dyfi Bridge and Machlynlleth was closed due to flooding; more flooding also in the Conwy Valley. [Max 13.8C Min 6.9C Rain 7.8 mm] [Leeming 17.4C Kinbrace min -3.3C; Capel Curig 46.6 mm Keswick 32.2 mm; Wattisham 3.5h].

The first 15-d of the month had a mean temperature of 11.2C (+2.7) & [+3.5] of averages, clearly much warmer than recent months. The soil at 30 cm averaged 11.6C (+2.5). Rainfall 125.3 mm was (102%) & [99%] of averages. .

The temperature at 0030 GMT on the 16th was 12.4C and as a cold front passed over had fallen to 5.9C at 0720 GMT Another bright morning with pressure 1007 mb rising, a light WSW'ly breeze and good visibility. Low 964 mb was SE Iceland while the cold front was in the SE over Kent. Jetstream 300 mb GFS analysis for 00 GMT on 16 Nov 2015. Courtesey of SFSU Meteorology. Some weak sunshine and the odd glimpse bright sunshine in the morning gave way to a cloudier, but dry afternoon. With the jet stream continuing to be nicely set up to deliver more storms, one was 979 mb off Nova Scotia at 0600 GMT. The Met Office have named another as Storm Barney developing W of Ireland and predicted to arrive tomorrow to give storm force winds over southern Britain. They used to number the depressions on analysis charts and this made keeping track of them easier, but I see the current names are not used either! It is harder now to follow tracks especially with multiple fronts and waves drawn on the charts. [Max 9.9C Min 5.9C Grass 1.7C Pptn 4.6 mm] (Frittenden 14.8C Drumalbin 1.1C; Tyndrum 41.2 mm Capel Curig 21.6 mm; Aberdeen 6.8h Valley 2.3h). The 17th began with low cloud with an air from the SSE. It was quite dull and damp with a temperature of 7.9C. Pressure 1000 mb was falling rapidly with Atlantic-low 980 mb SW of Shannon, low 969 mb Norwegian Sea and high 1027 mb over Spain. Soon the wind began to strengthen and by afternoon was touching gale force. There was a burst of heavy rain at 1230 GMT (26 mm/h). Valley reported a gale with gust of 59 mph while at Caernarfon Airport force 9 was recorded. The barometer reached its lowest point 989 mb here at 1634 GMT and a gust of 48 mph occurred at 1743 GMT. [Max 13.7C Min 5.1C Grass 0.1C Rain 12.8 mm] (Yeovilton 17.5C Glenanne min -0.2C; Cassley 34.2 mm [Capel Curig 20.6 mm]; Kinloss 2.3h). Similarly beginning overcast and dull on the 18th low 981 mb was off the Western Isles of Scotland and pressure here 1001 mb was gain falling quickly. There had been recent moderate showers of rain (7 mm/h) and gusts up to 36 mph. Continuing very windy touching gale force there was a gust of 40 mph at 0916 GMT. We had a heavy shower at 1030 GMT that fell at a rate up to 67 mm/h. By 11 GMT the sky began to clear from the NW and there were some bright spells before noon, but the clearer weather did not last and the afternoon was mostly cloudy with a few slight showers of rain, then brighter again as the sun set. [Max 12.5C Min 7.9C Rain 8.0 mm] [Kew 15.9C Braemar min 0.6C; Shap 46.0 mm Capel Curig 31.4 mm; Shoeburyness 4.5h]. Continuing mild on the 19th there was only a trace of snow left on Cairngorm Mountain. At 0900 GMT the temperature was 9.3C with an over night minimum of 8.8C. Low 985 mb was over the Baltic while low 1009 mb was S Greenland with associated fronts to the N and Atlantic-low 1007 mb farther S had associated fronts to the S. With high 1033 mb over Iberia we continued with a strong W'ly air flow and continuous slight rain and moderate visibility into the afternoon. From 14 GMT, with air beginning to be drawn from Arctic regions, the temperature began to fall. [Max 9.5C Min 8.8C Rain 3.4 mm] (Scilly 14.0C Drumadrochit min 2.0C; Resallach 25.8 mm [Tiree 18.8 mm]; Leuchars 6.5h.

Quite a change on the 20th with cooler air and some clear spells overnight the first ground frost of -1.2C of the season. The air minimum was 4.2C at 0350 GMT and at 0900 GMT had risen to 5.6C. Meteosat MSG image (c) EUMETSAT at 09 GMT on 21 November 2015, courtesy of Bernard Burton.Frontal cloud was to the S while showery Arctic air was to the N; some fresh snow had fallen on Cairngorm Mountain. The morning was bright with a few short sunny spells; the day's maximum 8.0C just before noon. With temperature falling at 1343 GMT there was a heavy shower with ice pellets (13.4 mm/h). With the wind veering W then N'ly in the evening from 2045 GMT there were further increasingly wintry showers of snow pellets and small flaked snow. [Max 8.0C Min 4.2C Pptn 5.8 mm] [Bude 10.7C Braemar min -2.3C; Capel Curig 19.4 mm; Leeming 4.5h]. Strong to gale force N'ly wind after midnight and a bright morning on the 21st, fine with a cold force 5 N'ly breeze. Several large planted pots were overturned and garden furniture moved around in the night. With crepuscular rays over the Nant Ffrancon Pass snow was lying above 1000 ft on the Snowdonia Mountains, with some as low as 800 ft in places on the N-facing slopes of the Carneddau. Sprinklings too on high ground in Llyn and Cadair Idris. The temperature at 0900 GMT was 4.1C, up from a minimum of 1.7C, rising to 6.3C at noon. A line of well-developed convective clouds, evident from 06 GMT on satellite images, stretching from the North Channel via Anglesey, Pembrokeshire and Brittany to the Bay of Biscay, persisted into the afternoon. A cool day almost everywhere. [Max 6.3C Min 1.7C Rain 4.6 mm] [Scilly 8.9C Tulloch Bridge min -4.7C; Capel Curig 14.8 mm Rhyl 12.2 mm; Nottingham 6.3h Valley 2.2h] .

Snow cover across the Snowdonia mountain range.

A mostly cloudy start on the 22nd with snow persisting on the mountains. Pressure 1015 mb was rising quickly with lows 994 mb Baltic & Kiel Canal and high 1037 mb Azores with Atlantic-ridge to W of Ireland. We had had a recent moderate shower and showers were in sight over the mountains, wintry in nature. A few glimpses of sunshine and light showers. By mid-afternoon the cloud lifted sufficiently to give a view across the mountain range (above) and in more detail sunshine picking out the moderate cover between Carnedd Dafydd and Penyrole Wen Carneddau snow between C. Dafydd & Penyrole Wen. . [Max 7.7C Min 2.2C Pptn 1.8 mm] (Scilly 10.6C Benson min -5.6C; Capel Curig 15.4 mm [Fylingdales 10.8 mm]; Glasgow 6.7C Valley 4.6h). Light winds overnight and a white frost on grassy fields at first on the 23rd, the frost disappearing quickly approaching 0900 GMT. On the grass the minimum was -3.6C lowest this autumn so far. The air minimum had been down to 1.1C at 0100 GMT. Cloudier, giving a fine, but dull morning. Pressure was steady on 1024 mb with low 969 mb Iceland and high 1035 mb Azores. In a light SW'ly breeze the temperature was 4.1C rising to 6.8C by noon. The Arctic airflow was being replaced by warmer air and at noon there was a warm front over the N Channel & Irish Sea. The temperature at 1800 GMT was 8.0C and went on to rise in warm sector air to 10.4C here and at Gorwel Heights by 2140 GMT, the day's maximum. From 1600 GMT there was a spell of moderate to heavy rain (up to 10 mm/h around 20 GMT) dying out before midnight, but having done no good for snow on the mountains. [Max 10.4C Min 1.1C Rain 14.4 mm] (Achnagart 11.6C Valley 10.9C Benson min -5.5C; Millport 15.4 mm Mona 12.0 mm; Shoeburyness 4.0h).

Overcast and raining with poor visibility on the 24th. Pressure 1012 mb was falling and there was an unattached warm front over the North Channel through Wales to the Isle of Wight and over to France. Low 971 mb was over the North Sea. There was frequently showery rain and no sun, a moderate shower about 1615 GMT included a few ice pellets. [Max 8.8C min 4.1C Pptn 7.2 mm] [Scilly Is. 12.0C Aboyne min 1.0C; Capel Curig 29.4 mm; Leuchars 4.5h]. Much the same on the 25th; visibility was very poor but improving after recent showers. Pressure 1014 mb was rising and it was brighter by 11 GMT with light WNW'ly breeze. Notable were 2 or 3 glimpses of sunshine in the afternoon in between slight showers of rain! Small daily range in temperature. [Max 10.7C Min 10.2C Rain 1.6 mm] (Swanage 13.6C Kielder Castle min -0.8C; Rhyl 12.2 mm [Capel Curig 7.6 mm]; Wattisham 6.0h). Dull and damp again on the 26th with further drizzle and slight rain at times. Drier at first in the afternoon with further rain and thick fog as cloud descended between 1630 and 1730 GMT. Rain continued into the evening as warm sector air pushed in before midnight. [Max 11.6C Min 7.9C Rain 4.4 mm] [Aberdeen 15.1C Santon Downham min -2.2C; Tulloch Bridge 10.2 mm; Leuchars 5.0h] . On the 27th as pressure 1007 mb was falling the moderate to fresh WSW'ly wind was backing. Pressure was low 964 mb Norwegian Sea and Italy 996 mb. A trough and cold front was over the Irish Sea with the barometer reaching a low of 1000 mb at 1328 GMT there was a gusty wind and a very heavy downpour of rain and ice pellets at 1328 GMT falling at a rate up to 124 mm/h. The intense band of precipitation moved eastward in the afternoon. [Max 11.1C Min 8.9C Pptn 19.6 mm] [Hawarden 14.4C Manston min 5.5C; Capel Curig 39.2 mm; Sheffield 1.8h] .

Overnight the air temperature had fallen to 3.0C and there had been slight frost on the grass min -0.5C. Continuing overcast and dull on the 28th with strong to gale force SSW'ly wind. Pressure 1007 mb was falling quickly with complex lows 974 mb Iceland and a frontal wave over the North Channel. A very windy day with a wind run of 275 miles and 135 miles at Gorwel Heights. [Max 10.4C Min 3.0C Rain 8.0 mm] [Scilly Is. 12.0C Braemar min -1.0C; Shap 38.4 mm Capel Curig 26.8 mm Lake Vyrnwy 34.0 mm; Manston 4.0h] . Gale force winds around coasts and mountains continued on the 29th with pressure 999 mb falling. There was a frontal-wave 985 mb off Malin Head and low 966 mb over the Faeroes. The barometer here bottomed at 998 mb at 1106 GMT; at 1144 GMT the wind was gusting 46 mph while 65 mph was reached at Caernarfon Airport at 1214 GMT. The Britannia Bridge was closed again to HSV's with a 20 mph limit for other traffic. Several trees down in Snowdonia; the A5 was closed near Betwsycoed and the A470 at Talycafn until cleared. The wind moderated late afternoon and the evening was quite and dry. [Max 11.9C Min 6.6C Rain 16.4 mm] [Shoeburyness 13.8C Balmoral min -0.5C; Shap 25.4 mm Capel Curig 16.9 mm; Boulmer 2.4h] . Restrictions continued on the Britannia Bridge on the 30th the last day of the month. Very dull with moderate rain. Pools of water on the fields hereabouts and on the flood plain of the Cefni Marsh with roads awash with runoff. With swollen rivers there was flooding in many parts of Wales. With the jetstream lined up to deliver more of the same there was a frontal-wave over Shannon and a warm front over Wales to the Isle of Wight. The SW'ly wind was gusting to 40 mph and the temperature was rising quickly and reaching 11.9C at 1359 GMT before the cold front arrived. A heavy shower 53 mm/h at 1400 GMT then wind moderated and backed NNE'ly. [Max 11.9C Min 3.9C Rain 7.4 mm] [Pershore 14.8C Rhyl 14.3C Aboyne min -3.0C; Lake Vyrnwy 59.8 mm Capel Curig 49.4 mm Sennybridge 46.2 mm Bala 43.6 mm; Kinloss 5.1h.

The month ended with total rainfall of 245.3 mm the largest in November since 2007 ranking 3rd since 1928. The wettest year 2000 had 250.5 mm in November. A mild month with the mean temperature 9.5C ranking 3rd highest after the 10.3C in 2011 and 10.1C in 1994 . A very dull month with 16 sunless days.


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December 2015

December 1 - a ridge of high-pressure moved across in the night, but the wind was picking up again with Aberdaron reporting force 9 and 56 mph gusts. More trees were down and reports of flooding, including at Conwy Valley at Llanwrst and Dyfi estuary, with 8 persons in Wales having to be rescued from their stranded vehicles, one by helicopter. Pressure was on 1017 mb with low 980 mb at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia and 961 mb over the Denmark Strait. Dull, but dry for a time in the afternoon before rain later. Warm sector air moved in during the evening and night. [Max 12.0C Min 4.4C Rain 2.4 mm] [Murlough 15.0C Hawarden 14.2C; Achnagart 44.3 mm; Shobdon 4.4h. It was dry at first on the 2nd, but soon raining with moderate fog and at 0900 GMT the observer got drenched as it fell down at 62 mm/h. There was some standing water around and roads again soon awash with some lanes in Llansadwrn partially flooded. High gusts again with 40 mph recorded here at 0625 GMT, 48 mph at Gorwel heights at 0622 GMT and at Caernarfon Airport 59 mph 0533 GMT. A sunless day.[Max 11.8C Min 10.7C Rain 14.4 mm] (Hereford 14.2C Braemar min 5.5C; Capel Curig 47.0 mm; Wattisham 5.5h) . Quiet again overnight and a light NE'ly breeze at 0900 GMT on the 3rd after recent rain. Cloud in the Menai Strait slow to lift, but and the morning mostly dry. With pressure 1004 mb falling by noon and with a developing frontal-wave over the Celtic Sea steaming up St George's Channel towards Anglesey and Liverpool Bay 1000 mb at 1800 GMT, the wind strengthened markedly in the afternoon and a 20 mph speed restriction was put on the Britannia Bridge. Light rain from 1300 GMT turning moderate to heavy and a particularly heavy burst 59 mm/h at 1731 GMT as a cold cold passed over. Rain petered out about 2100 GMT; in all 22.0 mm fell over 10 hours duration. A sunless day. [Max 12.5C Min 6.7C Rain 22.0 mm][Bude 14.6C Gogerddan 13.9C Balmoral min -3.2C; Ronaldsway 47.8 mm Capel Curig 43.4 Keswick 42.0 mm Shap 37.4 mm Mona 26.8 mm; Lerwick 1.4h]. The 4th dawned bright and breezy with a clearing sky. A moderate to fresh SW'ly backing from NW'ly. The wind strengthened in the afternoon with gusts of 47 mph at 1633 GMT here, 50 mph at Gorddinog and 53 mph at Llangristiolus. The temperature rose through the afternoon and and evening reaching 11.8C at 2215 GMT. During the evening and night the wind reached gale force around coasts and high ground with a gust of 58 mph here at 2258 GMT. Caernarfon Airport had a gust of 75 mph at 2231 GMT.A casualty of Storm Desmond at Gadlys, Llansadwrn. Valley reported mean wind speeds in excess of 40 mph from 1400 GMT through the afternoon and night. [Max 11.6C Min 4.1C Rain 30.5 mm] [Yeovilton 13.3C Hawarden 13.2C Drumnadrochit min -1.8C; Kinlochewe (70.6 mm) Shap 72.2 mm Aultbea 69.4 mm Keswick 64.6 mm Tulloch Bridge 67.4 mm Capel Curig 29.0 mm Valley 7.2 mm; Manston 6.9h] . It was still blowing well at midnight with pressure 1012 mb falling rapidly the wind continued gusting around 45 mph with moderate rain. The Met Office had named the fourth named storm of the season Desmond, and this brought damaging gusts of wind across northern Britain while the frontal systems associated with the storm are bringing heavy rain. The heaviest rain was expected on west facing hills and mountains from North Wales northwards and a Red 'take action' warning for rain was in force for parts of Cumbria and the Scottish Borders. At 0900 GMT on the 5th 29.6 mm had fallen since midnight here in Llansadwrn and at Caernarfon Airport, where a gust of 77 mph had been recorded at 0259 GMT, 36.0 mm had fallen. Here the AWS had recorded 50 mph at 0639 GMT. Rain was heavy and a small stream was flowing across the garden runoff from surrounding fields. Although not the highest of tides (7.3 mm Liverpool) there had been an 0.8 m tidal surge that would not help outflow from swollen rivers. Atrocious conditions continued with no let up in wind or heavy rain; with lakes forming in the garden and on surrounding fields. The temperature reached a low of 9.9C in the afternoon before beginning to rise to 11.5 at 2100 GMT when 71.0 mm of rain had fallen since midnight, but was only to add another 0.6 mm over the next 3-h. At Beaumaris 2 people had to rescued from their cars in Henllys lane after becoming trapped in flood water. Water coming off Red Hill, and down the road, into Beaumaris flooded the road and was rapidly filling the castle moat. The Fire Brigade was called to pump water out of the moat when it was in danger of overflowing into the town. Some cellars had to be pumped out, but there was no flood as occurred 22 October 2004 . Trains were cancelled between Bangor and Holyhead due to flooding in several places including at Bodorgan. Scottish Power were still working to restore power supplies lost in Storm Desmond to 500 properties in North Wales. [Max 12.0C Min 8.8C rain 49.0 mm {79.5 mm over past 48-h}] [Killowen 13.8C Stornoway min 4.1C; Shap (191.8 mm) Capel Curig 137.2 mm Keswick 111.6 mm Malin Head 62.0 mm Bala 35.8 mm Belfast 32.6 mm Mona 25.2 mm Valley 14.4 mm Rhyl 7.0 mm Crosby 1.8 mm; Lyneham 0.3h. The 6th began overcast with slight intermittent rain and poor visibility. Water levels had receded, but the ground was very soggy underfoot with minor puddles in places. Pressure 1008 mb was rising quickly and by afternoon it was a little brighter with glimpses of weak sunshine. A much drier day everywhere. [Max 13.0C Min 9.8C Rain 0.8 mm] [Santon Downham 15.7C Aboyne min 1.1C; Shap (62.8 mm). Capel Curig (50.0 mm) Lake Vyrnwy 11.6 mm Capel Curig 9.9 mm Sennybridge 10.6 mm Shap 3.6 mm; Aberdeen 4.9h Valley 0.2h]. The Met Office tweeted that rainfall for the 48-h ending 09 GMT today (6th) was 262.6 mm at Shap; 178.4 mm in Keswick; 174.8 mm at Blencathra; and 170.6 mm at Capel Curig, rainfall in Llansadwrn for the same period was 79.5 mm. Later the Met Office reported that 341 mm had been recorded at Honister, in Cumbria, said to be the largest fall of rain ever recorded in Britain.

Lee waves and view towards Llanfairfechan near the time of the Fohn-like event.

The 7th began mostly cloudy with pressure steady on 1018 mb at 0900 GMT. Pressure was high 1040 mb Italy and the Med while a deepening Atlantic-low W of Ireland was tracking northwards. There was a general SE'ly airflow over Britain although local winds had a more S'ly flow. The temperature was 12.7C (dewpoint 11.2C) and relative humidity 91% and pressure began to slowly fall reaching 1015.8 mb at noon as did the relative humidity with some north and west Wales stations including Rhyl, Capel Curig and Trawscoed reporting lower values by afternoon. The day brightened with a lee clearance developing over the eastern Menai Strait. [Max 15.7 station December record Min 5.1C Pptn 1.6 mm] [Llanfairfechan Gorwel Heights 17.7C Gorddinog 17.5C Gogerddan 16.4C Aboyne min -0.9C; Eskdalemuir 28.4 mm; Wellesbourne 4.6h]

A remarkable Föhn-like wind event happened on the 7th in Llanfairfechan. The temperature at Gorwel Heights weather station (AWS) reached a maximum of 17.7C at 1328 GMT (below left) and a low relative humidity of 50% (below right) with the force 7 wind descending the mountain gusting to 54 mph (courtesy of Gordon Perkins). Temperature 10-min records at Gorddinog courtesy of David Lee and Gorwel Heights Gordon Perkins.At nearby Gorddinog weather station (AWS and Stevenson screen) the temperature reached 17.5C at 1338 GMT and a relative humidity of 52% the wind gusting at 51 mph (courtesy of David Lee). Both these temperatures, using 'well ventilated' calibrated instruments, exceeded the UK high temperature on this day (7th December) of 16.1C set in Paignton in Devon way back in 1921. They are also a whisker off the all time UK December maximum of 18.3C set in Achnashellach (Highland) on 2 December in 1948 and the later 18.0C on the set at Aber [Abergwyngregin] on 18 December 1971 (courtesy of TORRO). Relative humidity 10-min records at Gorddinog courtesy of David Lee and Gorwel Heights Gordon Perkins.For comparison the temperature reached in Llansadwrn at 1336 GMT was 15.7C with relative humidity of 70% and wind gusting to 30 mph. The official MetO maximum's reported to date was 16.4C at Gogerddan; 16.0C at Trawscoed; and 15.5C at Chivenor in Devon. Temperatures at Gorwel Heights were above the 16.1C threshold for 6h 40 m from 1150 to 1830 GMT; at Gorddinog for 6h from 1230 to 1830 GMT; and at Llansadwrn it did not quite make it, but the 15.7C was a December record at the station. The previous highest December maximum was 15.2C on the 23rd of the month in 2002. The panorama photograph above taken at 1401 GMT, looking towards the mountains and Llanfairfechan during the event, shows some stable lee-wave clouds developed in the vicinity of Llansadwrn of several hours duration and the lee clearance, the result of the persistent strong wind over the mountaintops. Traverse temperature profile courtesy of David Lee.Between 1505 and 1520 GMT David Lee did a traverse of the A55, between near Talybont in the west to Dwygyfyfchi in the east, with a calibrated data logger recording temperatures at 5 second intervals (graphic left). The temperature profile peaked at 17.8C in the vicinity of Llanfairfechan in close agreement with the temperatures observed at Gorddinog and Gorwel Heights. Also it clearly shows how the Föhn-effect can be very local in extent, the exact location dependant on wind direction. It was not a typical Föhn (see below), but the end result was similar. The temperature on the summit of Snowdon was 7C between 1235 and 1435 GMT with an average relative humidity of 89% (courtesy of Skylink). Using a general dry air (<100%) lapse rate of 3.05C per 1000 ft the increase of temperature of the 7C air descending from 3560 ft (the altitude of Carnedd Llewelyn) to 241 ft (the altitude of Gorwel Heights) is 17.1C, which together with some solar heating could largely account for the enhanced 17.7C and 17.5C observed temperatures. Using the difference between height of Snowdon and sea level gave a possible enhanced temperature of 17.9C.

Gordon Manley (1902-1980) the late eminent geographer and climatologist writing in The Guardian of 18 January 1971 about the highest January temperature of (65F) 18.3C recorded at Aber on 10 January 1971 said "... From Colwyn Bay, near by, 63F was reported; this has previously been attained at Rhyl, and has stood for 40 years as the January record for the British Isles. We have yet to learn whether, somewhere along or near that favoured North Wales coast, 65F may even have been exceeded last Sunday. At Rhyl, Aber, and Botwnnog, near Caernarvon, records are kept by official standards. Perhaps there are others in places where the gentle to moderate south to south-east wind coming over the mountains, descended on the leeside so that air was compressed and warmed in the manner of the anti-cyclonic föhn so well known in the Eastern Alps. For you must have something to push the air down once it has found its way past the summits; past that crowning erection upon Yr Wyddfa (Snowdon); past Y Ffoes Ddyfn on Carnedd Llewelyn, that gully where the snow lingered until late in 1951, and into August in 1879. To push the air downhill again requires a high-altitude inversion such as develops from time to time when pressure rises; the anticyclone towards the Baltic moved a very little westward.
It was noticeable that in Monday's "Guardian" the freezing level above the Cairngorms was sadly reported at 10,000ft. Indeed, the downward push on the mild southerly air flowing across the Cairngorms, with a noon temperature of 55F, in Edinburgh, sent the thermometer up to 61F in the afternoon at Glenmore Lodge, 1,060ft above sea-level. This, for its latitude was even more remarkable than the temperature of 65F in Llandudno, with a clear sky and sunshine all day. Any well defined mountain barrier can do the same trick. For example, in the lee of Cader Idris and the Arans. Machynlleth last Sunday had a record maximum of 64F. It would be agreeable to know how warm it became at Bettws-y-coed or Trefriw. But let the thermometer be a good one, properly exposed; neither on a veranda nor beside the kitchen window, certainly not on the cold stone wall of that little detached building in the back garden so frequently to be observed in rural Wales.
And let the leeside of our mountain ranges have its occasional rejoicing. For one of the results is that in Britain the highest temperatures on record in midwinter come not from the South-east but from places in North Wales and the Highlands of Scotland. The record for December, 65F, in 1948, was set up in Achnashellach in Ross-shire; and not only the present January record, but the previous highest came from North Wales. At the same time, the other ranges can play their part. In the lee of the Wicklow Hills, Dublin, with 63F, was said to be the warmest capital in Europe last Sunday, and in January, 1888, 62F was reached at Durham on a similar rare type of day with the air descending over the High Pennines...".

The castle and moat at Beaumaris.The 8th it was fine and sunny with a light to moderate SSW'ly breeze at 0900 GMT, the temperature had reached its minimum 8.8C (dewpoint 7.0C) after a blustery shower of rain. There were more light showers during the morning, one with small ice pellets. The afternoon was sunny at times with more slight showers. The level of water in the moat at Beaumaris castle (left) looked near its normal level this morning after the heavy rain storms of the 4th and 5th. . [Max 10.5C Min 8.7C Pptn 3.2 mm] (Gravesend 14.9C Killylane min 6.1C; Cluanie Inn 31.2 mm Capel Curig 20.4 mm Aultbea [19.4 mm]; Kinloss 5.4h). The 9th began mostly cloudy with near gale force SSW'ly wind. Spots of rain after a recent shower then a blustery morning with glimpses of sunshine. Very windy in the afternoon, a gust of 57 mph was recorded at Gorwel Heights and 49 mph here. Some showers later and rain moderate to heavy from 2000 GMT. [Max 11.1C Min 4.4C Rain 30.0 mm] [Achnagart 13.0C Aboyne -0.4C; Capel Curig 75.2 mm Keswick 48.0 mm; Wattisham 6.6h]. Strong winds continued after midnight, gusting to 66 mph at Caernarfon Airport and 40 mph in Llansadwrn . After early light showers of rain the morning of the 10th was mostly cloudy, but being moderately high the tops of the mountains were in view, and together with a moderated wind speed that was an improvement. Seagulls and starlings attracted to wet filed.Along the A5025 towards Pentraeth a mass of sea gulls together with starlings had been attracted by treatment of very wet looking fields by sewage effluents; there was a most unpleasant odour nearby that could be smelt downwind half a mile away. [Max 9.0C Min 6.5C Pptn 1.8 mm] [Bournemouth 13.0C Fyvie Castle min 0.1C; Capel Curig 66.9 mm [13.6 mm] Sennybridge [24.4 mm]; Boulmer 5.0h]. A shower front passed over around midnight on the 11th with bursts of heavy wintry precipitation. The hailometer was marked ice precipitation and there was a sprinkling of 'white' around the summits of the Carneddau. A mostly cloudy morning with moderately high cloud, but by 0900 GMT cumuli were was piling in again across the mountains in the west. Pressure was 1018 mb with low 976 mb with a trough to Scotland. With high 1037 mb over Spain were were again in a W'ly air flow. Fine here with a little sunshine in the afternoon. [Max 8.9C Min 4.2C Grass -0.2C Pptn 9.7 mm] (Swanage 12.2 mm Milford Haven 10.0C Aboyne -3.7C; Cluanie Inn 31.4 mm Tulloch Bridge [14.6 mm]; Boulmer 5.0). Turned cold later and after midnight the air minimum had fallen to 2.9C and there was a frost on the grass -2.0C. Tryfan. Gushing waterfalls and swollen river. Courtesy of Millie.By the morning of the 12th things were very different with a MetO yellow warning of heavy rain in force for Anglesey and Snowdonia. At 0900 GMT pressure 1010 mb was falling rapidly with a frontal wave low 1006 mb over Dublin. The temperature had started to rise quickly and there was very heavy rain and a strengthening wind. Heavy rain and strong to gale force wind through the morning. There was again deep standing water at the weather station. Roads were quickly awash, some partially flooded, with large pools of water on fields. In Llangefni the river Cefni was a torrent and bursting it banks W of the town and across the Cefni Marsh. A gust of 48 mph was recorded at 1051 GMT at the weather station; about the same time a shopper at an ATM machine at ASDA Llangefni lost £40 when a strong gust of wind 'snatched' the notes away when being retrieved. After a short lull around 1400 GMT when wind and rain lessened, it was raining again from 1600 GMT when 27.6 mm had accumulated since midnight. Conditions were bad along the A5 to Betws y Coed in the afternoon when the photograph (left) of Tryfan was taken. Mountain streams and waterfalls had turned into gushing torrents and there was a lot of water on the road; later the road was closed for a time. Rainfall this month so far, and its only the 12th, is 186 mm, the 10th largest December fall in Llansadwrn records since 1928. [Max 11.4C Min 2.9C Rain 24.0 mm] (Hereford 14.0C Dalwhinnie min -0.9C; Capel Curig 92.0 mm; Kirkwall 4.2h].

Slow broadband speeds in Llansadwrn. Courtesy of USwitch.comOverhead fibre optic cable in Llansadwrn.Llansadwrn has the 8th slowest broadband in Britain, according to website (left) The weather station has been struggling with it's copper line for ages. There is hope... I see that a nearby lane has been 'fibred' (right) ; it seems that fibre optic cable can be supplied overhead in rural areas, complete with it's nice green painted cabinet, after all! Apart from increased speed it is reported to be less vulnerable to effects of lightning strikes. I have lost count of the number of times the weather station system has been knocked out due to lightning damage. Anglesey's broadband performance was spoken about on 12 October 2015 in the House by Anglesey MP Albert Owen. "In the recess, I went out with BT engineers to see for myself what the issues were in my predominantly rural area. I saw some of the problems that they had to consider when they rolled out broadband and moved from copper to fibre. Yes, it is a big task for them, but they have received a lot of money to do it... In my constituency, 80% of cabinets are live, so 80% of households can access broadband". So I would ask why not in our road?

The 13th began with overcast grey skies and a very light E'ly breeze and drizzle with slight rain at times. Visibility was poor, but the standing water had disappeared one advantage of being on a patch free-draining glacial drift. Not so in some surrounding fields which are still very wet with standing water. Further somewhat heavier rain later, a sunless day. The AWS raingauge is out of commission. The raingauge is on the ground with its rim at standard height along side the copper gauge. Investigation found it had been invaded by several small and a large slug, probably seeking refuge from rising water level in the flooded soil below, although it would be possible for a slug to squeeze through the drainage hole in the funnel. The reed switch activated by the tipping bucket no longer works, a small slug depositing slime had lodged itself on the reed switch... so it was manual readings only, that are done anyway for the 'official raingauge', until replaced. This involved a soldering job, and of course it started to rain during the operation and had to be finished under an umbrella, fortunately it was not windy at the time. [Max 9.7C MIn 3.2C Grass 0.0C Rain 3.4 mm] (Thorney Island 13.4C Dalwhinnie min -8.7C; Suddeley Castle 19.6 mm; Morpeth Cockle Park 1.9h). There was a red sky over the mountains around 08 GMT on the 14th so sailors and shepherds should take heed. A bright morning with high Ac As and Ci clouds leaving the mountaintops in the clear; there was no snow to be seen. The temperature was 5.4C and the pressure steady on 1012 mb. Low 984 mb was off SW Ireland with high-pressure 1029 mb over the Bosporus and 1038 mb Greenland. Cloud encroached during the morning and there were spots of rain from 1230 GMT only to turn drier later in the afternoon. [Max 9.1C Min 5.1C Grass 0.4C Rain 2.4 mm] (Scilly 13.7C Milford Haven 12.1C Dalwhinnie min 0.0C; Dunstaffnage 19.4 mm; Stornoway 4.9h Bala 0.1h). The 15th began fine, but fairly dull with cloud thickening during the morning. The breeze was SE'ly and the temperature at 0900 GMT 8.9C rose through the day reaching 13.9C here at 2131 GMT and 15.3C at Gorwel Heights at 2150 GMT in the Föhn-like wind. [Max 13.9C Min 5.3C Grass 1.3C Rain 4.2 mm] [Llanfairfechan Gorwel Heights & Gorddinog 15.3C Bude 15.3C Gogerddan 14.3C Aviemore min -6.7C; Capel Curig 34.6 mm Lake Vyrnwy 20.6 mm; Stornoway 2.8h]

The 16th again began overcast with a moderately high uniform grey cloud, the mountaintops were clear enough and it seemed hardly necessary to check for snow. There wasn't any! At 0900 GMT the temperature was 11.2C (dewpoint 10.8C) RH 97% and pressure 1012 mb was rising quickly. By 1115 GMT in a S'ly breeze the sky had brightened and there were some glimpses of sunshine, but this did not last and by afternoon there was moderate fog and a little rain. Later the wind strengthened. At 1800 GMT the temperature was 12.1C and this rose to 14.0C at 2100 GMT (dewpoint 12.5C) RH 92%. At Gorwel Heights the temperature had risen to 16.8C at 1956 GMT and at Gorddinog 16.4C at 2010 GMT in the warm sub-tropical air. [Max 14.0C Min 8.0C Rain 1.8 mm] [Llanfairfechan Gorwel Heights 17.9C Gorddinog 17.4C Kew Gardens 16.4C Hawarden 15.3C Drumnadrochit min 1.3C; Eskdalemuir 21.4 mm Capel Curig 12.4 mm (39.2 mm)]; Kinloss 2.9h). After midnight on the 17th temperatures rose again in Llanfairfechan in another interesting Föhn wind. At Gorwel Heights with the wind gusting to 39 mph the temperature at 0246 GMT was 17.9C with the relative humidity down to 48%, and at Gorddinog at the same time, but with a not quite so favourable wind direction, there was a Stevenson screen recorded maximum temperature of 17.4C (RH 50%) as the wind gusted to 35 mph (courtesy of David Lee). According to TORRO the previous highest recorded temperature on the 16th December (24-h ending 0900 GMT on the 17th) was 17.0C at Aber in 1972, the temperatures recorded this December exceed this by a good margin. In Llansadwrn the temperature was a cooler 12.8C with a relative humidity of 89%; the temperature continued to rise a little to 13.7C (RH 87%), nevertheless one of the higher recorded here in the month of December, between 0500 and 0610 GMT, but we did not get the best wind direction for full effect. At 0900 GMT the temperature was 12.2C with a moderate SSW'ly breeze and pressure 1007 mb falling. There was light rain and poor visibility. Overnight minima 21-09 GMT were 14.1C at Gorwel Heights, 14.0C at Gorddinog and 12.3C in Llansadwrn. Keeping overcast the rain petered out and the afternoon was drier. [Max 12.3C Min 11.3C Rain 2.0 mm] (Achnagart 15.2C Braemar min 6.6C; Capel Curig 24.0 mm [31.2 mm]; Kirkwall 2.2h)

Dusting off my bookshelf copy of Gordon Manley's book 'Climate and the British Scene', 3rd impression 1955, No. 22 in the New Naturalist Series, (then Professor of Geography at the University of London and President of the Royal Meteorological Society), on p 130 writing about British Föhn winds he said "... Somewhat rarely maritime tropical air reaches us in November to give temperatures over 60°. But in December and January it is interesting to observe that practically no example of a day-time maximum above 60° has ever occurred except in the lee of mountains when the air-stream was descending over them... these instances affords a reminder that with a moist air current under stable conditions, generally round the margin of an anticyclone with warm subsiding air at some higher level, the air will descend on the lee side of a mountain range in much the same manner as the Swiss föhn...". ¤

It will be interesting to follow weather events over the next few days with the warm sub-tropical air flow forecast to continue. The 18th began much the same with overcast skies and a moderate S'ly breeze. Pressure was steady on 1012 mb with complex lows 971 mb W of Ireland. There was drizzle and slight rain at times in the morning and the day wet and windy. The temperature at 0900 GMT was 11.2C generally rising through the day. By 2100 GMT the highest was 15.6C at Gorwel Heights in a strong S'ly wind and went on to reach 16.9C at 0140 GMT and 16.8C at Gorddinog on the 19th with the highest 14.7C at 0217 GMT in Llansadwrn. [Max 14.7C Min 11.0C Rain 8.0 mm] (Llanfairfechan Gorwel Heights 16.9C Gorddinog 16.8C Achnagart 15.2C Rhyl 14.3C Kinbrace min 5.3C; Achnagart 47.6 mm Capel Curig 22.0 mm; Wittering 1.1h). Keeping overcast , dull, wet and windy on the 19th as pressure 1001 mb was falling there had been rain since 0330 GMT soon ceasing. Once again there was a speed restriction on the Britannia Bridge which was closed to HSV's. The near gale SW'ly was gusting here to 41 mph around noon when at Gorwel Heights the temperature was 15.6C. More moderate to heavy rain from 1300 GMT through the afternoon, night to morning. Rainfall 24-h to 09 GMT was 20.6 mm over 17 h duration. [Max 13.5C Min 11.2C rain 20.6 mm] [Gravesend 17.1C (17.3C) Hawarden 16.0C Rhyl 15.8C Magilligan hi min 13.4C Baltasound min 7.3C; (Whitechurch 55.0 mm) Capel Curig 76.2 mm; Kirkwall 1.5h]. A brighter morning on the 20th with cumuli and towering cumuli in the vicinity. A light shower at 0900 GMT and the day was bright with sunshine at times with showers. At 1332 GMT there was a heavy shower of wet snow pellets that left faint indentations on the hail pad and for a while a sprinkle of 'white' ice precipitation around the summit of Carnedd Llewelyn. Mostly cloudy here in the evening when aurora were seen from the north of Anglesey and places in the north including Whitby on the east coast of England. A cooler day, but still 'mild' for December. [Max 10.7C Min 8.5C Pptn 4.6 mm] [Santon Downham 14.0C Cassley min 3.6C; (Capel Curig 45.6 mm) Shap 23.8 mm Capel Curig 14.8 mm; Leeming 5.3h]. Another very wet day on the 21st as rain began at 0850 GMT with light to moderate rain morning and gale force winds for a time around coast and mountains. Bright, with some sunshine in the afternoon after clearance of the cold front. With a rising temperature there was further rain from 2300 GMT through till morning when 18.6 mm was measured at 0900 GMT. This brought the total for December so far up to 255.0 mm making it the wettest December on record in Llansadwrn beating the 242.1 mm recorded at Gadlys Cottage in 1964. Rainfall at Capel Curig reached 742 mm while 641 mm had been recorded at Shap Fell. The maximum 12.4C was at 0635 GMT. [Max 12.4C Min 7.2C Rain 18.6 mm] [Exeter AP 14.3C Hawarden 13.6C Killylane min 2.8C; Capel Curig 55.0 mm Shap 45.4 mm; Aldergrove 3.6h Valley 3.0h].

There was no let up on the 22nd with more rain and gales. At 0900 GMT conditions were atrocious with rain sheeting across the fields and garden. Pressure was 1001 mb with complex lows Iceland 949 mb with associated cold fronts moving over from the west. The wind gusting to 41 mph and visibility very poor; rain turned light during the morning dying out by afternoon. Remaining overcast the day was sunless. Some showers around midnight. [Max 12.1C Min 7.9C Rain 2.3 mm] (Writtle 16.2C Aboyne min 1.6C; Capel Curig 62.6 mm; Aberdeen 3.4h). In contrast the 23rd began bright and breezy with very good visibility. At first there were towering cumuli in the vicinity, but these diminished through the morning with spells of sunshine developing and a mostly sunny afternoon. Temperatures rose during the evening that became very windy again gusting 40 mph at 2039 GMT [Max 11.0C Min 5.9C Grass 1.5C Rain 14.6 mm] (Swanage 12.9C Milford Haven 11.7C Aviemore min 0.6C; Tyndrum 38.6 mm; Leconfield 6.3h). At 0227 GMT on the 24th Christmas Eve the temperature had risen to 11.0C. At Gorwel Heights the temperature was 12.4C with the wind gusting to 50 mph at 0150 GMT. There was light to moderate rain from 03 GMT with a heavy burst at 0530 GMT, along with some ice precipitation, and a 39 mph gust of wind. Rainfall 24-h ending 0900 GMT was 14.6 mm bringing the total for December up to 271.9 mm [226%] of average. Largest any month rainfall total in Llansadwrn since records began in 1928.This is 10.9 mm short of the largest any month total of 282.8 mm recorded at this station in October 2008. The morning was bright and with a slowly clearing sky some glimpses of sunshine, a cooler day the temperature at 0900 GMT 7.5C (75% RH). Pressure was rising and temperature falling and it was a bright, but breezy afternoon that kept dry. The minimum temperature 4.8C was around 2020 GMT, thereafter it was rising. [Max 7.7C Min 6.5C Grass 2.8C Rain 1.6 mm] (Gravesend 13.7C Kinbrace min 1.6C; Cluanie Inn 46.4 mm; Camborme 3.9h). Breezy after midnight on the 25th Christmas Day with the temperature rising to {7.5C} at 04 GMT. A band of rain in the SW giving light rain from here at 0730 GMT and was 1.6 mm by 0900 GMT. There was a slight SSE'ly breeze and visibility was very poor. By 10 GMT the rain had become moderate. Rainfall of 283 mm has now exceeded the previous largest of any month's total in Llansadwrn. At 1800 GMT rainfall since 0900 GMT had accumulated 29.3 mm bringing the total for December up to 302.8 mm. And it was still raining! At 2100 GMT rainfall since 0900 GMT was 34.3 mm and from 2100 to 0900 next morning the 26th another 44.5 mm that brought the total for the 24-h to 78.8 mm. The previous largest daily December fall at this station was 44.2 mm on the 8th in 1983. The total for the month is 352.3 mm, exceeding all records. Rainfall at Capel Curig so far this month has reached 903 mm. [Max 12.3 Min 4.8C Grass 0.4C Rain 78.8 mm Gorddinog 82.8 mm] (Bude 14.9C S Newington min -0.2C; Capel Curig 70.6 mm [168.0 mm]; Lerwick 2.0h). It was raining hard on Boxing Day morning on the 26th with standing water all around the weather station and a stream running through the garden. The road outside was flooded with several inches of water and Beaumaris was cut off with roads closed.Rainfall 48h to 09 GMT on 27th. SYNOP & local PWS sources. Locally roads were awash, partially flooded and a challenge to drive on. The A55 was closed in several places due to flooding with several cars submerged in places. Llanfairfechan was cut off as a result. There was flooding in Bangor and the road near Vaynol Hall The A5 was also closed in several places; there was flooding in Bethesda, the Conwy Valley and Llanwrst, Nantmor, Llanberis and Machynlleth and too many other places to list. Light winds at first soon strengthening again with restrictions on the Britannia Bridge, if you could get anywhere when crossed! The railway and ferries were, however, still operating. The Hidden Gardens at Plas Cadnant were devastated when a wall of water swept down the Afon Cadnant that has a source in Llansadwrn. The rain had eased by afternoon and at 1500 GMT when another 16 mm was measured in the raingauge. The graphic left shows for selected local stations the 48-h rainfall totals for Christmas Day and Boxing Day ending at 09 GMT on the 27th. At darkness approached it started raining once more. Flooding took place in Beaumaris as the moat at the Castle overflowed. Coastguard and RNLI teams were assisting people in homes near the Castle. Additional resources were brought in from the mainland including units from Conwy and the Aberglaslyn Mountain rescue Team. Roads to Beaumaris were closed either by flooding and/ or threat of landslide. By 2100 GMT rain had stopped and the day's rainfall had reached 27.6 mm measured at 0900 GMT next morning and December's total to 379.9 mm. [Max 12.3C Min 5.7C Grass 5.0C Rain 27.6C] (Hawarden 15.7C Altnaharra min -2.6C; Capel Curig 133.2 mm; At Athan 1.3h). A fine bright morning on the 27th and with a clearing sky and little or no wind a slight ground frost (-0.9C) and a little icing. Pressure 1017 mb was rising with low 993 mb over the N North Sea and high 1039 mb N Italy. In the Atlantic off Iberia yet another weather system low 985 mb was developing and heading N in our direction. Roads to Beaumaris were still closed with reported flooding around the Castle and Castle Street. Several roads are still impassable in the Conwy Valley, Conwy County, Gwynedd including near Caernarfon, Llanberis and Y Felinheli. Conditions improved through the day that was largely dry, some spots of rain here during the afternoon. [Max 16.1C December station record Min 3.5C Grass -0.9C Rain 0.1 mm] [Llanfairfechan, Gorddinog 16.9C Gorwel Heights 16.4C] (Chivenor 15.9C Cardiff 13.8C Lough Fea min -2.1C; Tredegar 26.6 mm; Boulmer 5.4h)

During the evening there was another Föhn wind event here and in Llanfairfechan. In Llansadwrn the temperature just before midnight was 13.8C 74% RH and at Gorwel Heights it had been 16.4C at 2310 GMT. After midnight on the 28th the temperature at Gorddinog around 0200 GMT reached 16.9C a UK record for the 27th (09-09z) previous highest 16.7C in Ashburton in Devon in 1921 (courtesy of TORRO). Gorwel Heights highest remained at 16.4C while in Llansadwrn, with a bit more E in the S'ly breeze (gusting 29 mph) around 03 GMT, the temperature reached 16.1C (Stevenson screen), a station record for December, with a low humidity of 44%. Pressure was 1008 mb and the temperature 13.6C 45% RH at 0900 GMT. At Gorwel Heights the temperature at 1010 GMT was 15.9C 44% RH. A bright sometimes sunny day with good drying conditions, water finally receded around the weather station and evaporation, PE measured by the Monsieur Piche's evaporimeter in the Stevenson Screen, was 4.0 mm. Washing on the line was bone dry in the afternoon, something that has not happened for ages. At 1330 GMT in at Gorddinog in Llanfairfechan the temperature reached 16.5C with RH about 50%. At 1800 GMT frontal-wave low 999 mb was over Shannon, Ireland. During the evening as frontal waves tracked NE pressure dropped to 1000 mb and for a couple of hours there was a very gusty wind that was very noisy in the trees with some showers of rain. [Max 15.5C Min 3.6C Grass -0.2C Rain 7.1 mm] [Gorddinog 16.5C Gorwel Heights 15.9C Valley 15.0C Capel Curig 13.5C] (Bridgefoot 15.6C Cassley min 0.7C; Castlederg 22.8 mm; Manston 4.7h) . After midnight on the 29th as a cold front passed there were more very heavy bursts of rain these accumulating 7.1 mm by 0900 GMT and brought the month's total up to 387.1 mm. There were some towering cumuli and a Cb in the vicinity at first, then a fine brightening morning with some sunshine. The A 545 between Menai Bridge and Beaumaris was closed just after Gallows Point due to a landslip of earth and trees, there was a diversion through Pentraeth and Llandegfan. There had been landslides here on previous occasions. By noon the breeze had strengthened; Atlantic-storm Frank was on its way heading N close to Ireland and brought storm force winds and heavy rain to western areas later. [Max 13.5C Min 8.3C Rain 4.6 mm] [Gorddinog 16.0C Gorwel Heights 15.0C Marham 13.5C Mumbles Hd. 12.4C Loch Glascarnoch min 2.5C; Cork 62.0 mm Tulloch Bridge 52.2 mm; Wellesbourne 5.8h]. Storm Frank arrived on the 30th and caused widespread damage in North Wales and N England. Caernarfon Airport recorded a gust of 86 mph at 0209 GMT, Capel Curig 74 mph, and Valley/ Mona 66 mph. Pressure 997 mb at 0900 GMT was rising after a heavy squall on a cold front. At Gorwel Heights the wind was on gale force 8 recorded at 10-min intervals between 0520 and 0800 GMT (2h 40m), the mean gust speed from 0340 to 0820 GMT was 58 mph (10-min intervals) with a high gust of 78 mph (a station record) at 0710 GMT; this wind caused structural damage to several houses in Llanfairfechan. Several roads in SE Anglesey were closed due to fallen trees including in near the Church in Llansadwrn, where the telephone line was cut, and again on the Pentraeth to Beaumaris road effectively cutting off Beaumaris as the A545 was closed near Gallows Point due to the landslip. Ferries on the Irish Sea were cancelled. According to the BBC Wales 1400 Welsh properties were left without power. [Max 9.7C Min 7.6C Rain 10.6C] (Nantwich 14.2C Rhyl 13.9C Dalwhinnie min 4.5C; Tyndrum 82.0 mm Libanus 45.0 mm; Shoeburyness 1.6h). The 31st began brightly enough with 5 oktas cloud cover at 0900 GMT, but the sky was already darkening as convective shower clouds developed. Pressure 1005 mb was rising with low 992 mb over the North Sea off Aberdeen, Scotland. A cooler day with a maximum of 7.5C, lowest of the month. There was a heavy 'sleety' looking shower here at 1319 GMT that AWS recording a burst of 34 mm/h; the hailometer was finely marked indicative hail. At 1515 GMT to the SE thunder was heard; thunder and lightning was reported at Gorwel Heights. [Max 7.5C Min 4.3C Pptn 13.5 mm] [Isle of Portland 11.9C Loch Glascarnoch min -4.4C; Shap 26.2 mm; Wattisham 6.3h].

The remarkable month ended with total rainfall of 415.8 mm the largest in December on record since 1928 in Llansadwrn. The wettest year 2000 had 153.6 mm in December. Equally remarkable was the warmth, the mean temperature of 9.2C the highest in station records and comparatively back to 1945. The station December temperature record was broken twice, first on the 7th then broken again with 16.1C on the 27th. A very dull month with 15 sunless days.

The year ended with a total rainfall of 1425.1 mm which ranked 3rd largest in Llansadwrn since records began in 1928, just behind the largest 1483.9 mm in year 2000 recorded at this station and the 1451.9 mm recorded by the late Mr. Dic O'Connor at Treffos in 1954.


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